The highest level of resistance was to ampicillin (56.1%), followed by nitrofurantoin (43.9%), tetracycline (41.4%), cefotaxime (37.8%), nalidixic acid
(29.3%), ciprofloxacin (23.1%), co-trimoxazole (21.9%), meropenem (14.6%), imipenem (12.2), chloramphenicol (7.3%), gentamicin (4.9%), piperacillin-tazobactum (3.7%).
Multidrug resistance was always associated with nalidixic acid
and ciprofloxacin resistance since all 10 strains exhibited resistance to both antimicrobials.
Ampicillin (9.1%) and nalidixic acid
(19.0%) showed the lowest level of susceptibility.
Saiwan, "Sorption of acetaminophen, 17[alpha]-ethynyl estradiol, nalidixic acid
, and norfloxacin to silica, alumina, and a hydrophobic medium," Water Research, vol.
coli strains were highly resistant to cefotaxime, nalidixic acid
, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and cotrimoxazole.
Biochemical tests, namely, gram staining reaction, oxidase, urease, and catalase tests, and antibiotics (cephalothin and nalidixic acid
) susceptibility test were employed [14, 15].
coli that are resistant, 86% (62/72) were resistant to tetracycline, 22%, 21%, and 8% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid
, and chloramphenicol, respectively.
Another research of Karachi is also the evident of high rate of resistance in Shigella against Ampicillin and nalidixic Acid
55.5% and 39% respectively.12 Resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole is also observed in E.coli as 72% and 78% respectively.13
In our study, most of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and nalidixic acid
. The presence of ESBL producing genes such as blaCTX-M-1 in the study isolates further indicates the threat of spreading resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, as cephalosporins are used for treatment in children, where quinolones are usually not recommended.
The highest resistance was found against nalidixic acid
(91.7%) and ampicillin (90.8%) and significant resistance was also found against sulphamethoxazole + trimethoprim (co-trimoxazole) (67.2%).
Summary: Different analogs of 1-ethyl-1, 4-dihydro-7-methyH-4-oxo-1, 8-naphthyridine-3-carbohydrazide (carbonyl hydrazone derivatives of Nalidixic acid
, H 1-10) and their copper complexes have been synthesized from reaction of Nalidixic acid
hydrazide with substituted benzaldehyde.
The first quinolone (quinoJ[ine] + -one [compound related to ketone]), nalidixic acid
, was isolated as a byproduct of chloroquine (see "quinine," https://wwwnc.
The antibiotics tested in this study include ampicillin (10 [micro]g), cefixime (5 [micro]g), ceftriaxone (30 [micro]g), nalidixic acid
(30 [micro]g), ciprofloxacin (5 [micro]g), levofloxacin (5 [micro]g), chloramphenicol (30 [micro]g), cotrimoxazole (25 [micro]g), azithromycin (15 [micro]g), and tetracycline (30 [micro]g), respectively.
There were intermediate zone of inhibition found on claforan, nalidixic acid
, amoxycillin, fosfomycin, fortum, and erythromycin on Mueller Hinton's agar after 24 hours incubation.
Levofloxacin (LEV), Ciprofloxacin (CIP), Nalidixic acid
(NA), 53.5% against Metabolic inhibitor (MI) category Sulphamethoxazole/ Trimethoprim (SXT), 17.8% against Cell membrane inhibitor (CMI) category i.e.