In a study of 142 children treated for community-acquired urinary tract infections in 1991, compared with 124 treated in 1999, resistance to Escherichia coli, Kiebsiella, and assorted other pathogens was measured in respect to ampicillin, cephalexin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, and nalidixic acid
15] Nitrofurantoin, Ampicillin and Nalidixic acid
were poorly effective against majority of the isolated organisms.
The colonies growing around nalidixic acid
on primary susceptibility plate were isolated, and identification and drug susceptibility were per formed.
The sensitivity pattern shows that the resistance rate was highest for Nalidixic acid
The inoculating plates were air-dried, and antimicrobial discs, included ampicillin (10 [micro]g), chloramphenicol (30 [micro]g), co-trimoxazole (25 [micro]g), tetracycline (30 [micro]g), gentamicin (10 [micro]g), nalidixic acid
(30 [micro]g), and ciprofloxacin (5 [micro]g).
ampicillin, amoxicillin, bacitracin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kanamy-cin, neomycin, nalidixic acid
, oxytetracyclin, polymixin, streptomycine, tetracycline, vancomycin, were used in this research work and each antibiotic disc had a 30ug of antibiotic.
coli, followed by nalidixic acid
, 1st generation cephalosporins and TMP/SMX (Table 1).
cholerae isolated from the Garulia outbreak) but resistant to ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid
, and furazolidone.
Since 1993, Sd1 strains from Burundi have been resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole and moderately susceptible to nalidixic acid
; the case-fatality rate was lower among Burundian refugees in Rwanda treated with nalidixic acid
(3%) than among patients in Burundi treated with cotrimoxazole before the crisis (10%) (5).
11] A study of imported strains that was based in the United States  noted an increase in the number of MDR and nalidixic acid
75 [micro]g), tetracycline (30 [micro]g), doxycycline (30 [micro]g), norfloxacin (5 [micro]g), ciprofloxacin (5 [micro]g), nalidixic acid
(30 [micro]g), and erythromycin (30 [micro]g) (bioMerieux).
was the first clinically available quinolone.
Over the decades, Shigella isolates resistant to multiple agents, such as sulphonamides, tetracycline, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (SXT), and nalidixic acid
have been reported from many countries, including Bangladesh (3,6-11), resulting in difficulties in the selection of empirical therapy.
In addition, for urine isolates norfloxacin (10 [micro]g), nitrofurantoin (300 [micro]g) and nalidixic acid
(30 [micro]g) discs were used.
4% Shigella isolates were resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid
, ofloxacin and ceftriaxone respectively.