where seeds are dispersed by animals is one kind of interaction that might be particularly vulnerable to disturbance, whether that disturbance is caused by invasive species (Bond and Slingsby 1985; Zettler and others 2001; Christian 2001) or by habitat alteration that shifts the composition of species (Andersen and Morrison 1998).
Section 2 estimates an econometric time-series model, explaining the dynamics of mutualism
in the period under scrutiny.
Intentionally or not, the impression is thereby given that all that is needed to renew mutualism
is legislative change to remove the obstacles that inhibit the establishment and development of mutuals and co-operatives, so that similarly talented individuals might do their work.
and (3) What is the role of mutualism
in the ecological organization of tropical forests?
If the world is truly changing, as policymakers say it is, and if no nation, including the United States, possesses the resources to solve or even manage the array of global problems that lie ahead, we may have to adopt new policy orientations, including a non-American-centered framework that I call mutualism
The multi-age setting heightens everyone's awareness of individual differences and the necessity for cooperation and mutualism
His treatment embraces all forms of cooperation, from cases of by-product mutualism
in which the recipient gains from an activity that the donor would have engaged in anyway, to "true" altruism where to assist another individual participants suffer fitness costs, such as a loss of mating opportunities or an increased risk of predation.
Merrill concludes that general semantics through its multi-valued approach to problems can help the thoughtful journalist develop a philosophy of "ethical mutualism
An ethic of reciprocal mutualism
-- according to Ursula Franklin -- or a generalization of the Golden Rule as shared by all major religions -- according to Tom Harpur -- may yet gain wide acceptance in our world, with respect to humans acting in Nature as well as in Culture.
For the predecessors of the eukaryotic cell were always proving themselves in competition, but it is the nature of Gaia that, before she could come into existence, all competition would have to have become submerged in a universal mutualism
It is unusual, however, in being one of approximately a dozen bacteria with the metabolic capability to produce light, and it is one of a select group of three identified light-producing species able physiologically to form a bioluminescent mutualism
, or light-organ symbiosis, with certain marine fish and squids.
Waltz concludes, "The transformation of social structure is not produced by the mere mutualism
of international trade" (ibid.
Is interaction away for similar communities to buffer the vagaries of food procurement, or is it a mutually beneficial exchange (mutualism
) among complementarily specialized groups, or are mutualism
and buffering themselves consequences of participation in a larger sociopolitical system?
is predicted among both advanced and primitive firms, as long as they are technologically standardized and differentiated.
Objective: Species interactions such as mutualism
, parasitism and predation underpin much of lifes diversity.