To estimate corresponding causal risk ratios per 310 mg/L higher lipoprotein(a) concentration [or for a doubling in lipoprotein(a) concentration] for major bleeding in the brain and airways (adjusted for age and sex, or adjusted multifactorially as described above), we performed instrumental variable analysis using the multiplicative generalized methods of moments estimator.
For individuals with extremely high concentrations of lipoprotein(a), i.e., >800 mg/L (top 6%) compared with those with <110 mg/L (lowest 50%), the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio of major bleeding in the brain and airways was 0.84 (95%CI: 0.71-0.99) (Fig.
adjusted hazard ratios for total mortality in individuals with ferritin values below vs above 200 [micro]g/L showed significantly lower mortality overall (P = 0.0008) and separately for men (P = 0.02) and women (P = 0.03) with lower ferritin concentrations.
The multifactorially adjusted model included adjustments for age, sex, ever smoking (yes/no), cumulative smoking (packyears), alcohol consumption (number of drinks per week, 1 drink [approximately equal to] 12 g alcohol), body mass index (kg/
The multifactorially adjusted HR for alcoholic liver cirrhosis was 41 (95% CI, 14-118) for the 96%-100% vs 0%33% YKL-40 percentile category.
Hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for confounders associated with plasma ferritin and/or mortality, i.e., for age and sex or multifactorially for age, sex, leisure time physical activity (almost completely inactive, some activity, regular activity, regular hard physical training), smoking (current vs nonsmoker), diabetes (yes vs no) (not included for analysis of endocrinological mortality), alcohol intake ([less than or equal to]7 vs >7 drinks/week), menopause (women only), body mass index (<25 vs [greater than or equal to]25 kg/[m.sup.2]), plasma cholesterol (<5 vs [greater than or equal to]5 mmol/L), antihypertensive medication (yes vs no), diuretics (yes vs no), and medication for heart disease (yes vs no).
Multifactorially adjusted HRs for total mortality for individuals with ferritin [greater than or equal to]200 vs <200 [micro]g/L were 1.1 (95% CI 1.1-1.2; P = 0.0008) overall, 1.1 (1.0-1.2; P = 0.01) in men, and 1.2 (1.0-1.3; P = 0.03) in women (Fig.
Multifactorially adjusted models included time-dependent covariates from the 1991-1994 and 2001-2003 examinations for the CCHS.
In the 2 studies combined, multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for total mortality for TS [greater than or equal to] 50% vs <50% was 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.6; P < 0.001) overall, 1.3 (1.1-1.6; P = 0.003) in men, and 1.5 (1.1-2.0; P = 0.005) in women (Table 2).
We calculated hazard ratios and 95% CIs using Cox regression analysis with age as time scale (left-truncation, which implies that age is automatically accounted for) and adjusted for sex or multifactorially (sex, smoking habits, physical activity, BMI, alcohol consumption, blood pressure).
Multifactorially adjusted (age, sex, smoking, physical inactivity, BMI, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure) hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes increased as a function of sCD163 percentile group, from 1.4 (95% CI, 1.0-1.9) for serum sCD163 percentile category 34%-66% to 5.2 (3.6-7.6) for 96%-100% vs serum sCD163 percentile category 0%-33% (P for trend, <0.001) (Table 3).
Hazard ratios were multifactorially adjusted for sex (dichotomous), age (deciles), smoking habits (never/previous/current smokers), body mass index (continuous), alcohol consumption (continuous), plasma cholesterol (continuous), systolic blood pressure (continuous), physical activity (dichotomous), CRP (continuous), and earlier diseases at the time of blood sampling (dichotomous).
For plasma YKL-40 -concentration percentile categories, risk of early death was increased (multifactorially adjusted for sex, age, smoking habits, body mass index, alcohol consumption, plasma cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, physical activity, CRP, and earlier diseases at time of blood sampling) by 10% (hazard ratio 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) for plasma YKL-40 concentrations in percentile category 34%-66%, by 30% (1.3, 1.2-1.4) for 67%-90%, by 70% (1.7,1.5-2.0) for 91%-95%, and by 90% (1.9, 1.6-2.2) for 96%-100% vs plasma YKL-40 concentrations in percentile category 0%-33% (trend, P < 0.0001) (Table 3).