The hypoperfusion in motor areas
was expected and consistent with the GM loss there.
We measured fMRI BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) activity in thalamus, striatum, globus pallidus, supplementary motor area
(SMA) and the hand area of primary motor cortex (M1) during a finger tapping task (left, right, bimanual).
The t-test indicated a significant difference between the genders and the number of failures obtained by children in almost all the areas evaluated by DDST-II, except for the Gross Motor area
. In all areas, higher averages were associated with females (Table 2) suggesting better performance of girls.
Outputs from BG to frontal motor areas
are diminished due to a decrease of dopamine in the striatum in PD, which causes dysregulation in the presupplementary motor area
, supplementary motor area
, primary motor cortex, and ventral premotor cortex (31).
The literature points out that the extent and distribution of brain activations may differ in MI and ME, however in both the MI and the execution activities, the neural networks involving central motor areas
Defined ROIs include bilaterally presupplementary motor area
(pSMA), supplementary motor area
(SMA), cingulate motor area
(CMA), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and ventral premotor cortex (Pmv), primary foot motor area
(M1F), primary hand motor area
(M1H) and primary lip motor area
(M1L), primary foot somatosensory area (S1F), primary hand somatosensory area (S1H), secondary somatosensory area (S2), and somatosensory association cortex (SAC).
Husain, "Functional role of the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas
," Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.
Changes in the M1 in the motor learning process shown with TMS studies can be summarized as the motor threshold (MT), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF) changes, and display of changes in the site and size in the localization of the motor area
related to the movement in question for motor mapping.
The investigators also detected rapid firing in brain regions that check a stimulus for its emotional salience and in motor areas
that control movement.
A person whose left hand and arm are paralyzed has sustained damage to the motor areas
on the right side of the brain.
fMRI studies of patients after stroke have suggested that VR could increase neural activations in the primary motor areas
and improve lateralization of primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC) activity [21-23].
Gilson, "Localization in somatic sensory and motor areas
of human cerebral cortex as determined by direct recording of evoked potentials and electrical stimulation.," Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.
Taking into account the anatomical connectivity between parietal area PEc and motor areas
, it is possible that the multiphasic pattern of activity of PEc optic flow neurons may prompt transient activation of the motor neurons.
Therefore, other brain regions can be associated with complex motor performances and motor learning, including nonprimary motor areas
, such as premotor cortex (PMC) .
There are likely to be gender differences in neurobehavioral functioning across domains of depression, somatic, memory/attention, communication, aggression and motor areas