This study also found a lower number of cerebellar Purkinje neurons in the diabetic cerebellum, which was associated with decreased synaptic junction in the molecular layer
. Purkinje cells are the sole output neurons that receive excitatory inputs from climbing fibres and parallel fibres, along with inhibitory inputs from both stellate cells and basket cells in the molecular layer
[sup], They also found that electro-coagulation with output power of 5 W can damage the external molecular layer
, external granular layer, and external pyramidal layer.
The density for the molecular layer
and granular cell layers was averaged for each brain from measurements of two sections per brain per experiment.
(2007) Multiple climbing fibers signal to molecular layer
interneurons exclusively via glutamate spillover.
Two experimental series, A and B, were realized considering the optimum concentration of carbon nanotubes covered with a molecular layer
of iron (III) oxide.
On this view, the essence of the molecular layer
organization is that it provides a vast array of potential information from which to generate a cancellation signal, or error correction signal, via the anti-Hebbian learning mechanism.
The SICOR process affects only a molecular layer
on the polymer's surface, so the basic properties of the polymer remain unchanged.
Last summer, researchers at Hewlett Packard and UCLA led by James Heath announced that they had built a single molecular layer
capable of serving as a switch able to carry out a single operation, allowing electrons to flow once.
where [Lambda] is the wavelength of the HeNe beam, d is the thickness of the molecular layer
, [n.sub.o] is the normal refractive index, [n.sub.e]([Theta]) the extraordinary refractive index depending on the angle [Theta] between the molecular axis and the beam propagation direction.
Indeed, it was possible to do repeated measurements on the same molecular layer
The histology of cerebellum is generally defined as 3 layers, from superficial to the deepest part are: molecular layer
, Purkinje cells layer/piriform layer (Stratum purkinjense) and the granular cells layer which reside in the cortex; whilst the rest is the cerebellar medulla with white matters as the predominant member (Watson et al., 2010).The Purkinje cells (Neuron purkinjense) seems to play vital roles in the cerebellum connectivity to other brain area, especially via the dentate nuclei and cerebellar cortices, to correlate to the cerebral cortices, red nuclei of the mesencephalon, the ventral lateral nuclei of thalami and pons (Watson et al., 2010; Fitzgerald ett al.).
"In this experimental and theoretical research, the geometric structure of the molecular layer
was detected by atomic force microscope with very high resolution.
In two sections a collection of Purkinje cells was observed in the molecular layer
. The Purkinje cells were arranged as a distinct clump within the molecular layer
This result is attributed to the coadsorbent effect of dyestuff 4L, which has been applied successfully to prepare an insulating molecular layer
with N719 [12,13].