Turning to example one, the negative modal verb
d'undamtesa/d'undam-taled'a 'not want' is a good example for a process whose identification has already been a major concern in the pioneering work of Ulrich Weinreich on language contact, namely the relation of structural/typological proximity to convergence (e.
In other words, there is an ambiguous confusion between preterite-present and modal verbs
, since not all preterite-presents are ancestors of contemporary modals, and not all modals originated as preterite-presents.
Purely adverbial clauses like the temporal clause in (38a) merely describe an event without allowing any modal judgment with respect to this event, as reflected in the unacceptability of modal verbs
like may in (38b), while the construction types investigated here, like the purpose clause in (38c), do allow modal judgments, as marked by the modal of desirability may.
Indirectal verb forms in literary Estonian Indirectal quotative present and preterite means of [olevat; olevat + nud-/tud-participle olnuvat] expression Indicative personal or impersonal present perfect [on + nud-/tud-participle] Indicative personal or impersonal past perfect [oli + nud-/tud-participle] Indirectal Predicate participle infinite [nud-/tud-participle] forms da-infinitive [1) -da; 2) -da + nud-/tud-participle] Indirectal Past simple of the modal verb
pidama with ma-infinitive modal [pidi + ma-infinitive] verbs Da-infinitive and ma-infinitive of the modal verb
pidama [pidada + ma-infinitive] Perception verb kuulukse with vat-infinitive [kuulukse + vat-infinitive] Table 4.
She thus considers the modal verb
can within three categories: permission, ability, and root possibility and adopts a 'fuzzy set theory' to illustrate their interrelations.
Note that these verbs, like many modal verbs
, seem to allow for both raising and control, which implies that they are also members of K2.
In view of this, I assume that (49)-(55) are all analyzed as containing an empty volitional or future modal verb
, as Huang (1988) suggests.
If a modal verb
has both an intentional and a nonintentional meaning, then factors such as animacy affect its interpretation.
The modal verb
pidama 'must' (47) in its turn originates from the lexical verb pidama with the meaning 'keep; think' (48), (49).
In general, the majority of works based on historical texts, although these are not purely speaking diachronic studies, focus on modal verbs
rather than on other aspects of stancetaking.
Erelt (2003 : 106) considers tulema less grammaticalized than the modal verb
voima as it demonstrates special requirements on the noun and its own form.
This development is due to the fact that within a relatively short period of time utterances with nonfinite verbs are used less frequently than utterances in which the nonfinite verb is used with either an auxiliary or a modal verb
Similarly, should may be either finite, as a modal verb
equivalent to ought, or non-finite, as a subjunctive "periphrasis" (Anderson 2001b, 2004a)--see further [section][section] 2 and 3.
In the 1950s negation of the modal verb
was already more frequent, e.
In addition, C now uses verb stems in various positions as well as two finite verbs in V2 (again a modal verb
and a copula; cf.