For millenarist Christians, Palestine was not only the future stage of judgment day, but also an important meeting ground on which they built links with fellow believers from different parts of Europe and North America.
Archival research in five countries (Great Britain, Germany, United States, Jordan and Turkey) will make it possible to compare the support networks millenarist settlers had back in their home countries (missionary archives), the different degrees of political support which millenarist settlers enjoyed (consular correspondence) and the difficulties they encountered in their coexistence with the indigenous population (Ottoman court and state archives).
In this way the schismatic rebellion of Tomochic is nothing but an extreme case in a time when millenarist
believes were prevalent.
12) The first colonists' dreams and phantasms were so intense that after crossing the ocean this experience actually confirmed all their eschatological expectations and millenarist
ideas: "the most popular religious doctrine in the Colonies was that America had been chosen among all the nations of the earth as the place of the Second Coming of Christ, and the millennium, though essentially of a spiritual nature, would be accompanied by a paradisiacal transformation of the earth, as an outer sign of an inner perfection" (Eliade 264).
It is a pity that Simonetti, while including the Letter of Barnabas in his survey did not point to the existence of an opposite, anti-Platonic trend among Egyptian Christians, represented by the discovery of fragments of the Didache, by the Shepherd of Hermas and by the millenarist
ideas of Nepos of Arsinoe as late as the 260s.
Mannheim further identifies four main periods of utopian thought, extending from the chiliastic, or millenarist
ideal of the sixteenth century, through the liberal-humanitarian (and bourgeois) concepts of the enlightenment, a pietist re-emergence of the chiliastic ideal in the early nineteenth century, and finally to a new communist utopianism whose firm foundations in economic realities are a guarantee of its validity (Mannheim, 190-222).
Thus, Vieira's view of eschatology on earth culminates with the emergence of the elected king, and is supported by several implicit and explicit references to the famous New Testament dictum "unum ovile et unum Pastor" (one flock, one shepherd) (John 10: 16), popularized by Joachimist millenarists
, latter day utopians, nationalists, socialists, Marxists, ecologists preaching ecocide--Weber's prophets of last days are myriad.