According to several reports, the damage, which was originally thought to be a micrometeoroid
impact, could also have occurred on Earth due to a worker-based error or a deliberate effort by an individual to drill a hole during the assembly process.
Model extrapolation of these experiments also showed that thermal fragmentation caused rocks to break down an order of magnitude faster than from micrometeoroid
impacts, particularly at distances of 1 astronomical unit (about 93 million miles) with the speed of breakdown slowing at distances further from the Sun.
Kovalyov, "Study of micrometeoroid
and orbital debris effects on the solar panels retrieved from the space station "MIR"," Space Debris, vol.
The spacesuit features a specially engineered ventilation system to allow the flow of pure oxygen, signal telemetry to monitor heart rates and other conditions, a system for the continuous flow of cool water, and a thermal micrometeoroid
outer layer to protect against solar radiation and other hazards.
They also experimented with electromagnetic rail guns and developed a still-unique hypervelocity impact facility for understanding and protecting against micrometeoroid
impacts on space vehicles.
The remaining layers form the thermal micrometeoroid
garment (TMG) which primarily provide thermal and micrometeoroid
20 to relocate a crane, launch a small science satellite and install micrometeoroid
shields on the space station's Zvezda command module.
While it would suffer degradation and damage due to particle radiation and micrometeoroid
impacts--as would any satellite--it is a massively redundant system of mostly solid-state devices with few moving parts operating in the relatively pristine environment of space.
AE sensing, both with accelerometers and ultrasonic sensors, was utilized to monitor a wide variety of impact conditions on Space Shuttle components ranging from insulating foam and ablator materials, and ice at ascent velocities to simulated hypervelocity micrometeoroid
and orbital debris impacts.
While engineering and design criteria were exhaustively incorporated into the shuttle, no similar system existed to revalidate and recertify the RCC design assumptions or to check the progression of unforeseen problems, such as micrometeoroid
strikes, pinholes, corrosion, oxidation, and other effects detrimental to those critical leading-edge RCC panels.
And for insulation, inside the spacesuit a liner divides the gas-bag from the thermal micrometeoroid
garment--made with five layers of aluminized Mylar (silver party-balloon material).
Pegasus 1, a micrometeoroid
detection station with 96-foot wings as sensors, was put into orbit.
The initial theory backed by NASA indicated the hole was likely made by the impact of a micrometeoroid
6 a tiny but fast-moving fleck of space junk in low-Earth orbit.
All five moons experience micrometeoroid
impacts relatively often, and the little ones lack sufficient gravity to hang on to the dust raised by each strike.
The atoms that are shot off the surface of this planet by solar wind and micrometeoroid
impacts create Mercury's exosphere.