The cerebellum is in the middle of the mesencephalon
and the myelencephalon, and covers in the pons and the spinal cord (Fig.
Biological samples were rapidly dissected from the brain (telencephalon, thalamus, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, mesencephalon
), spinal cord (cranial, middle, and caudal parts), dorsal root ganglions (emerging from the cranial, middle, and caudal parts of spinal cord), and plantar foot skin.
Several of the patient's cerebral structures including the thalami, basal ganglia, mesencephalon
, and pons were affected.
Description of the Specific Measurements Relative to the Plane of the Incisura Dorsal to the Mesencephalon
. The splenium of the corpus callosum is located superior to the plane of the incisura.
Arauz (2014) found that only 25% patients with bilateral paramedian thalamic and mesencephalon
extension had good outcomes (mRS score < 2) after a mean follow-up of 55 months .
In the mesencephalon
few foci of lymphocytes were found in the meninges, few ones layered cuffed vessels and some degenerated neurons, showing vacuolation at the margin of the soma, and dilated myelin sheaths in the surrounding areas were visible.
Of particular interest are D3 autoreceptors expressed in DA neurons : PET imaging studies in humans using D3R-selective ligands showed that the ventral mesencephalon
expresses mainly if not uniquely D3R [19, 23].
In healthy individuals, astrocytes are heterogeneously distributed within the mesencephalon
, with a low astrocytic density in the SN.
(11) Neurotoxicity is most pronounced in the ventral mesencephalon
, hippocampus, and striatum.
RenVM is one of the immortalized human neural stem cell lines which is isolated from 10 week fetal neural ventral mesencephalon
and was established with the V-myc oncogene by retroviral transduction.
have described two patients with tremor and dystonia caused by AVM in the contralateral basal ganglia, thalamus and mesencephalon
, one patient with torticollis and AVM in the posterior thalamus, and another one with retrocollis and AVM in the parietal lobe.
The classic form of MSUD involved the basal ganglia in six cases; the cerebellum, mesencephalon
, pons, and supratentorial area in five cases; and the thalamus in four cases, respectively.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the result of dopaminergic degeneration in the substantia nigra of the mesencephalon
. Possibly caused by the production of oxygen radicals.
Munoz-Vio et al., "Perinatal Asphyxia Leads to PARP-1 Overactivity, p65 Translocation, IL-1[beta] and TNF-a Overexpression, and Apoptotic-Like Cell Death in Mesencephalon
of Neonatal Rats: Prevention by Systemic Neonatal Nicotinamide Administration," Neurotoxicity Research, vol.
Within the CNS, the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene is mainly expressed in neurons from the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus which project into the paraventricular nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, and other regions of the brain such as amygdala, cortex, hippocampus, medulla, mesencephalon
, and spinal cord .