Interestingly, we observed ER-DNA binding (indicative of ER activation) and Myo-D mRNA expression to be increased with eccentric exercise, but not impacted by either menstrual phase
. However, cyclin D1 was impacted by eccentric exercise, but much more so during the MF phase which seems to suggest cyclin D1 gene expression may be preferentially affected by ER activation, rather than by serum and/or muscle estradiol levels.
In the early 20[sup]th century, Sampson[sup] histologically confirmed that there were endometrial tissue fragments in the uterine veins of four patients with either peritoneal/ovarian EM or adenomyosis during the menstrual phase
. In our study, CECs were detected in 89.5% of patients with ovarian EM, indicating that the endometrial tissue could enter not only the confined uterine vessels but also the peripheral circulation in the form of CECs.
All female subjects were tested during the follicular menstrual phase
Upon completion of the run-in period, the assessments were conducted during the follicular (9th day of the menstrual cycle) and luteal phases (22nd day of the menstrual cycle), as well as at the beginning of the next menstrual phase
Serum CA-125 values were lower in midcycle than in menstrual phase
, in both groups.
In this study, 64 (62.7%) patients were in their menstrual phase
, six (5.9%) were outside their menstrual phase
during the follicular phase, five (4.9%) were at the mid-cycle phase, and 27 (26.4%) were in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle determined on the basis of the date of their last menstrual period and their blood hormone levels.
 Four recordings were done during menstrual phase
(1-3 days) and mid cycle (11-14 days), mid luteal (17-22 days) premenstrual (25-27 days) phases.
Statistical analysis of all the samples showed that among women there was a significant high total WBC count during proliferative phase compared to menstrual phase
and secretory phase.
Also, Daley (26) and Brown and Brown (27), from clinical trials, albeit of limited methodological quality, suggested that exercise may reduce some symptoms during the menstrual phase
. However, it corroborates the finding in another study (16).
We matched cases with controls by age, and had selected subjects without prior menstrual problems (specifically excluding those with polycystic ovarian syndrome who may have irregular menses ) who had regular menses for at least six months prior to admission and who were all in the endometrial proliferation phase of their cycle, so it is unlikely that our results are confounded by differences in the menstrual history or menstrual phase
of the subjects.
In addition, Belanger and colleagues (10) examined 18 female subjects and were unable to establish an association between increased ACL laxity and the menstrual phase
Each symptom is rated whether it occurs in premenstrual phase, menstrual phase
; it does not exist, barely inhibit activities or alters life style.
In terms of psychological testing (STAI), both follicular-and luteal-phase groups showed decreased scores for anxiety state after saffron stimulus, indicating improved anxiety state after smelling saffron regardless of menstrual phase
D women reported greater water retention in the MDQ and higher levels of depression in the POMS, during their menstrual phase
, than ND women.
Since birth control pills stabilize hormonal levels throughout the menstrual phase
, as opposed to the sharp drops and peaks of hormones in a nonregulated menstrual phase
, these pills may help to decrease the amount of changes in vocal function which result from more extreme fluctuation.