The first paragraph of the 1816 Report from the Select Committee on the State of Mendicity
in the Metropolis states:
Original language, already demand, already, precisely as such, misery, for the in-itself of being, already mendicity
, but also already imperative which maizes me respond for the mortal, for the neighbour, despite my own death, message of difficult saintliness, of sacrifice; origin of value and of goodness, idea of human order in the order given to the human.
Moreover, despite his aversion to numbers, Hitchcock is quite willing to make quantitative statements when it suits him, such as his unsubstantiated contention that "most beggars were Londoners born and bred." (7) This statement really requires hard evidence, for the data collected by the Mendicity
Society in the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars suggests that native Londoners comprised only 20 per cent of the beggars in the metropolis.
The giddy play on words that makes Chum's mendacity, as if by the magic of a single letter's alteration, work the uncanny effect of Leno's mendicity
, happens to be Plautus's own-- Mendicitatem mi optulisti opera tua, dum tuis ausculto magnidicis mendaciis.
Mendacity and mendicity
are not cognates but olden equated by arrogant non-mendicants.
Clopper in 'Langland's Persona: An Anatomy of the Mendicant orders' argues that 'Langland very carefully created the Wanderer as a persona who conflares images of the two principal kinds of mendicity
, the itineracy of the Franciscans and Dominicans and the eremiticism of the Austin Friars and Carmelites' (155).
Almshouses were endowed in Quebec, Trois Rivieres, and Montreal; a General Hospital was established at Quebec to cope with the growing problem of mendicity
. (12) Jesuits were allowed to operate in Montreal from 1692 onwards.
Dickens also detects his personifications on many occasions, as, for example, on this in Little Dorrit, where the abstraction "Mendicity
" finds multiple embodiment in a group of beggarly messengers: "Mendicity
on commission stooped in their high shoulders, shambled in their unsteady legs, buttoned and pinned and darned and dragged their clothes, frayed their button-holes, leaked out their figures in dirty little ends of tape, and issued from their mouths in alcoholic breathings" (131).
He is not told, however, that the assassination was carried out unknowingly by another of his sons, the unfortunate Zoaetoa, who, at the beginning of this novel in flashback, is living in exile and remorse and has been reduced to the lowest form of mendicity
William Olejniczak detects an underlying contradiction in the revolutionaries' discourse on mendicity
Even as the latter spoke of the rights of the poor to subsistence, they tended to criminalize those without subsistence by accusing them of being professional beggars undeserving of "charity." Jean-Pierre Bardet, on the basis of increasingly accurate and comprehensive demographic studies, considers why, despite the revolutionaries' pronatalist politics, contraceptive practices spread during this period far beyond the limited areas to which they had previously been restricted.
"Act[ing] a Charity": Elia, Classical Rhetoric, and Mendicity
Almost a century later in 1871, the government of Benito Juarez issued a new penal code that relegalized begging, thus ending a long experiment in eliminating mendicity
Both colonial and republican administrators believed that the Poor House could serve to eradicate mendicity
. They presumed that the "true" (elderly or sickly) poor could be identified and separated from the "fraudulent" (lazy or criminal) poor.
In 1846 and 1847 Origny was a centre of mendicity
, and the sub-prefect described it as being one of the worst places in the area.
In the epigraph to the "Old Cumberland Beggar" Wordsworth says that the old man represents a type that "will probably soon be extinct." What he means by this is elucidated in a note dictated many years later to Isabella Fenwick: "The political economists were about that time beginning their war upon mendicity
in all its forms and by implication, if not directly, on Alms-giving also." (42) I agree with David Chandler who has seen the poem as an attack on those "'Statesmen' who regarded pauperism as a problem and who would remedy it with compulsory 'indoor' relief," that is, relief given only to residents of state-sponsored institutions, as opposed to "outdoor" relief, or payments made directly to the needy under the old poor laws.