small branched annual), the Marsh Elder, Iva (perennial shrub), the Sea Lavender, Limonium nashii Small (small perennial rosette), and the Seaside Goldenrod, Solidago sempervirens L.
Cooperative and competitive interactions in the recruitment of marsh elders.
Removing invasive species, such as phragmites, and replanting with a diverse group of marsh plants, such as smooth cordgrass, saltmeadow hay, spike grass and marsh elder
, will provide nursery habitat for fish and other marine life in the estuary.
In southern New England the seaward border of the distribution of marsh elders
(Iva) is dependent on the presence of clonal turfs that ameliorate high soil salinities, but at the terrestrial border of the marsh elder
zone, where high salinities do not occur either with or without plant cover, Iva competitively displaces its clonal turf neighbors (Bertness and Hacker 1994).
In this paper, we explore the effects of a facilitative interaction on the morphology and physiology of the marsh elder
, frutescens L.