in the NKPC is then treated as a latent variable that is constructed from the observable variables and the equilibrium relationships implied by the DSGE model.
Equation (2) is the standard New Keynesian Phillips Curve (NKPC), in which current inflation depends on the stream of future expected real marginal cost
. (6) Comparing this to traditional Phillips curve we can see the following differences.
If this innovation lowers the marginal costs
of abatement for the defendant in question, then this fact alone makes it more likely for us to deem the defendant's failure to increase abatement to be unreasonable than would be the case in the absence of that innovation.
produce at the point where marginal cost
equals marginal revenue.
an increase in marginal cost
is associated with a lower quantity produced, and thus a lower total cost of product failure.
Our study begins from the notion that firms with increasing marginal cost
face a trade-off between domestic and export sales--when a firm alters export sales in response to an external demand shock, it will incur a change in marginal cost
, which in turn makes it optimal for the firm to alter domestic sales.
While they take into account the average cost of all funds raised by them, the RBI wants them to use the marginal cost
of funds, that is, the rate they pay for new deposits or borrowings.Banks say it's the average cost of funds that matters.
For simplicity, we make the following assumptions for each node: the marginal cost
is equal to local output and the production capacity is 15 MW.
Theoretical models can be classified according to two different principles: the model of marginal cost
(MC) and the model of full cost (FC).
While Costa Rica's state power company, the ICE produced energy in March with a maximum marginal cost
of $468 MW/h, in the regional market it was on sale for $218, reports Crhoy.com (May 2, 2014).
The group has also suggested that banks move towards a new system of computing the base rate on the basis of marginal cost
of funds instead of the present system of using the weighted average cost of funds.
Costs are modeled through a functional farm that allows estimation of nonparticipation costs; incomplete participation increases abatement costs for remaining countries by a penalty factor which depends on the convexity of the abatement's marginal cost
. Improving the existing literature where the emission reduction rate is equal for all EU countries.
Denoting the quantities the MNE sells in country A and B by [Q.sub.A] and [Q.sub.B], respectively, the subsidiary in A derives a revenue R([Q.sub.A]) and incurs a total cost of c([Q.sub.A] + [Q.sub.B]) where c is the constant marginal cost
industrial customers face natural gas prices that are close to marginal cost
, but that residential and commercial customers face prices close to average cost, with the vast majority of revenues coming from per-unit charges rather than through fixed monthly fees.
In selecting variables for the regression analysis, our goal was to study whether supplier characteristics that are commonly available to buyers, can be sufficient to reliably reveal the supplier's bidding policy and eventually the marginal cost