In ventral view the mandibular symphysis
tapers anteriorly, as in Hauffiosaurus (O'Keefe, 2001; Benson et al., 2011) and brachauchenine pliosaurids (Williston, 1903; Schumacher et al., 2013; Paramo-Fonseca et al., 2016; Fischer et al., 2017).
The mandibular symphysis
proportions, ratio of i3 to i1, length of premolar row, hypoconulid with two anterior lobes, thick incisor and canine processes assess the studied specimen to Hex.
Therefore, efforts have been made to establish associations between certain dentofacial characteristics and bone thickness in the mandibular symphysis
region in an attempt to predict the quantity of bone tissue in this region [2, 5, 7, 12, 20,21].
This parallel space is thus the unsutured mandibular symphysis
, which is normally fused in pliosaurids (e.g.
Nelson (2010), states that the main location for mandibular SBC is the premolar and molar regions, followed by the mandibular symphysis
. The present study found one lesion in the condyle, a rare event, with just over 16 cases reported (Hatakeyma et al., 2012; Kretzschmar, Postma, & Inman, 2005; Kyoung & Kwang, 2013; Magliocca et al., 2007).
The hyoid, which is positioned between the mandibular symphysis
and the larynx in the front of the neck, joins together the tongue, mandible, cranial base, sternum, scapula, thyroid cartilage, and pharynx and is influenced by these structures .
The likely reasons for a greater number of mandibular transmigrant cases are voluminous mandibular symphysis
and an emphasised buccal inclination of the lower incisors, as well as the typical conic shape of the canine root and crown .
Methods: An autogenous bone block graft was harvested from mandibular symphysis
, fixed on buccal aspect of edentulous crest with titanium miniscrews, covered first by autogenous bone chips and xenograft particles, and second with a resorbable barrier membrane.
(10) Chronic entrapment has been corrected previously by extraoral surgical resection of the stretched, redundant sublingual intermandibular skin (10) or by intraoral resection of the redundant frenulum tissue with a C[O.sub.2] laser associated with a nonabsorbable suture through the mandibular symphysis
pulling the tongue rostrally.
Considering the importance of the MF, this study was undertaken to investigate the morphology and variations in the position of the MF by the morphometric assessment of the relation of MF to the lower teeth, body of the mandible, mandibular symphysis
and to the posterior border of the ramus.
Ravosa feels that the study of mandibular symphysis
, which is the midline joint between the left and right lower jaws, is one of the most interesting and complex articulations in the bodies of mammals.
The lower lip and external incisions were then repaired in a layered fashion with resuspension of the soft-tissue envelope to the mandibular symphysis
Also, one case located in the mandibular symphysis
was observed in this study.
At least the anterior two thirds of mandibular symphysis
subluxation injuries), wear facets, uncomplicated crown fractures, intrinsic discolouration, periodontal disease, pericoronitis or dull pain in the region of the mandibular symphysis
. Interestingly, only 50% of patients with cutaneous sinus tracts of odontogenic origin have a history of a toothache with the majority of reported cases in the mandibular incisor region [Hodges et al., 1989].