The reason is that first, Z (and so F = Z - M) was positively correlated with stock size due to density-dependence and second, the lower bound
of exploitation was negatively correlated with stock size, because an increase in stock size translated directly into an increase in the denominator of the exploitation rate, and catch did not increase proportionally.
The lower bound
on the union coefficient is associated with a bound on each of the other coefficients in the model.
The benefit measures are designed conservatively to provide a defensible lower bound
to the annual benefits of each library, not an unbiased estimate of each library's annual benefits.
For instance, the subjects may have envisioned a similarly shaped distribution and set their upper and lower bounds
based upon the perceived distribution.
With the exception of 13 contracts (June 1983, June 1984, December 1984, March 1986, June 1986, September 1987, December 1987, March 1988, June 1988, December 1989, March 1991, June 1994 and September 1994), each contract is characterised by either upper or lower bound
It is these mutual constraints, in addition to the varying orientations of the domains, that causes the observed stiffness to be "intermediate" between the upper and lower bounds
5) it is not hard to see that these sets provide a lower bound
on the ideal GMRES approximation ,
We also consider an overall lower bound
which is a modification of 2-max lower bound
 as a termination condition.
This is a number between the lower bound
of $880,000 (a 12-percent reduction) and the point estimate of $1,000,000.
Then, the solution satisfies the constraints of compactness and its objective function value represents a lower bound
of the optimal solution of the original problem, but nevertheless, may break considerably capacity constraints.
A lower bound
is found by putting the reinforcement stress equal to the yield strength of the reinforcement e.
While the underlying macroeconomic risks to the projection are roughly balanced, the Bank judges that, as a consequence of conducting monetary policy at the effective lower bound
, the overall risks to its inflation projection are tilted slightly to the downside.
6] that gives an upper and lower bound
on the pagenumber of the binary hypercube.
Because the potential to invest in employer stock among those with a choice is known, consider this proportion to be the lower bound
of overall stock exposure, as follows:
The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the estimate problem of S (Fn), and give a sharper lower bound
estimate for it, where Fn = [2.