Liberalism is a political philosophy based on human rights.
Liberalism took shape in the European Enlightenment.
to discover the existence, analyze the nature, and trace the development of individual specific theoretical elements of liberalism (individualism, natural law, economic theories); but their existence did not make for liberalism as a political or social program.
The Politics of Human Frailty: A Theological Defence of Political Liberalism
Political liberalism is then accused of imposing secularist culture, irreligious attitudes, and atheistic ideology.
By situating the struggle for Jewish emancipation in Cologne within the larger frameworks of statebuilding, capitalism, liberalism, and Protestant-Catholic relations, Magnus has crafted a valuable case study of Jewish-German relations in nineteenth-century civil society.
The attitudes of such liberais as Gustav Mevissen and Hermann Beckerath provoke Magnus to distinguish Rhenish liberalism sharply from Badenese liberalism, which harbored a number of antisemitic resentments.
It is revealing that the chapter closest in tone to the assurance of earlier liberalisms is Frazer's piece, "Feminism and liberalism," which puts liberalism firmly in its place as something that had its uses for women's liberation in the past but is now passe.
While the banner of antiliberalism is still held aloft by some feminists, elsewhere the past two decades have seen the return to fashion of liberalism in many guises: first, the Kantian philosophical version revived by Rawls; then, the New Right's free-market brand; and latterly, even the more mundane political topics of civil society, liberal democracy, and limited government.
But each of these answers was abandoned as untenable; and over the course of two much-discussed collections of essays, Liberalisms and Postliberalism, liberalism itself was abandoned as incapable of being given any sound philosophical defense, though it might be embraced as a tradition by those people for whom its institutions were a cultural inheritance.
As a Jew and a Zionist he has felt at home in israel because there he has felt free, and not like he was in a foreign country; yet he remains "totally loyal to Britain, to Oxford, to Liberalism, to Israel, to a number of other institutions" with which he identifies.
Socialism's capitulation now appears to have left liberalism a reluctant victor, embarrassed by the hopes laid on it by the newly-liberated peoples of Europe, and prone to self-denigration.
While the classical liberalism of Locke and Mill sought the maximum freedom of individuals against interference from the state, the emphasis was moved from |negative' to |positive' liberty by the social-minded |new liberalism', fostered by world war and world depression, which viewed the state as an enabling institution promoting equality of opportunity.
He finds that they do not agree on many positions associated with liberalism, for example the boundaries of toleration, the legitimacy of the welfare state, and the virtues of democracy.
Speaking of the state, Ryan reminds the reader that, historically, liberals at one time have thought that liberalism was threatened by democracy and at another that liberalism entailed democracy, "What liberalism is always committed to," he says, "is constitutional government.