The evidence suggesting that toxin stimulates mast cells/basophils and/or increases airway kinins
heightens the importance of understanding toxin effects in allergic airways.
The local release of kinins
that can occur during contraction of muscles with minimally reduced blood flow may be another alternate etiology of pain.
In turn, these cells emit a range of immune system chemicals such as kinins
their ability to release kinins
, which cause contraction of visceral smooth muscle, an increase in capillary permeability and hypotension).
In the recent work, scientists at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore report that, regardless of the rhinovirus involved, proteins called kinins
appear to be the primary cause of painful nasal congestion.
2006), which can slowdown the elimination of kinins
and substance P and aggravate pain action.
ACE inhibitors interfere with the renin-angiotensin system and enhance the action of kinins
These the converting enzyme which side effects are very rare with catabolizes kinins
1998) suggest that the renoprotective effect of kallikrein gene delivery may be related to the ability of kinins
to activate phospholipase A and prevent phospholipidosis, which is characteristic of gentamicin toxicity.
Within EC cells 5-HT is synthesized from tryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase (a mixed function oxidase) and stored with other autocoids, such as vasoconstrictor peptide, substance P and other kinins
(Bush and Mayer 2006).
This second phase could be due to the liberation and over production of prostaglandins and kinins
in paw tissue, which accompanies leukocyte migration (Vane 1971).
CD13 is also expressed to degrade kinins
and neuropeptides on the surface of synovial cells derived from rheumatoid or osteoarthritic joints (27).
Clinical and pathological aspects of kinins