breed in nearly any open habitat that includes appropriate nest trees and foraging sites (grazed pastures, open riparian forests, beaver ponds, and along hedgerows and marshes).
1 -- color) A Western kingbird
perches near its nest in a sycamore Thursday, the day for tree trimming in the Saugus neighborhood.
Thus, high temporal stochastic variation in conditions for rearing young (the "bad-years" hypothesis) is unlikely to explain the relatively small clutch size of kingbirds
Limited song playbacks in 2009 at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, 70 km east of Santa Ana NWR, found that bronzed cowbirds responded to songs of several oriole species and to a more limited extent, the songs of the long-billed thrasher (Toxostoma longirostre), green jay (Cyanocorax yncas), and northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), all known host species, but not at all to songs of olive sparrows or Couch's kingbirds
(Tyrannus couchii; Gorton, 2010).
We encountered grassland-obligate species at only two sites (Table 6): four eastern kingbirds
(Tyrannus tyrannus) at C-cut/burn5 and Chop and one Bachman's sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis) and two dickcissel's (Spiza americana) at FC-savanna.
Goldfinches, indigo buntings, kingbirds
, yellowbellied sapsuckers, bobolinks and woodcocks depart, too.
Baltimore orioles call from the shoreline canopy, and Eastern kingbirds
, having arrived all the way from Argentina, perch low, singing their unmusical medley of electrical sparks.
The major bird predators on grasshoppers are Eastern Kingbirds
(Tyrannus tyrannus), Vesper Sparrows (Poocetes grarnineus), Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodrammus savannarum), and American Kestrels (Falco sparverius).
chase Bronzed Cowbirds from the nesting territory, eject cowbird eggs, and are rarely parasitized (Carter 1986; Clotfelter & Brush 1995).
, phoebes, phainopeplas Phainopepla nitens) or those that forage in the upper foliage (e.
Pheasants are nesting, and whip-poor-wills, red-headed woodpeckers, catbirds, cedar waxwings, yellow-throated vireos, meadowlarks, indigo buntings, scarlet tanagers, Baltimore orioles, cowbirds, kingbirds
, and more than a dozen varieties of warblers move across the Middle Atlantic region.
are flying up the river now, too, from the grasslands of Argentina.
Increase in trees in the Great Plains from fire suppression or tree planting is considered a main cause of range expansions of Western Kingbirds
(Tyrannus verticalis; Gamble and Bergin, 1996), Eastern Phoebes (Sayornis phoebe; Weeks, 1994), Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis; Gowaty and Plissner, 1998), Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata; Smith, 1978; Tarvin and Woolfenden, 1999) and Brown Thrashers (Toxostoma rufum; Cavitt and Haas, 2000).
Eastern versus western kingbirds
, blue (eastern) versus scrub (western) jays, and Carolina (eastern) versus canyon (western) wrens are examples.
whereas many western kingbirds
, western tanagers, and lazuli buntings may molt to the north of our study area (Young, 1991; Butler et al.