Following the glimpse behind the metaphysical curtain, reassured that Jesus is no (unmanly) victim but a volunteer for the Cross, the literal forms of arrest, trial, judicial torture
and execution that follow become mere appearances.
Once the prosecution had satisfied the jury, quite incorrectly, that judicial torture
was not sanctioned under Spanish law, the Welsh soldier's fate was sealed.
In 1754 Prussia's Frederick the Great abolished all uses of judicial torture, and over the next several decades most European rulers followed suit.
24) Even the defenders of judicial torture now felt it necessary to display their aversion to unnecessary cruelty.
Although attacks on judicial torture and cruel punishments had been published before, a veritable flood of criticism rushed into print after 1750.
The Calas Affair by itself would not have provoked a movement to abolish judicial torture.
Beccaria's criticism of judicial torture and cruel punishments followed from his fundamental re-evaluation of the principles of criminal justice.
Beccaria condemned judicial torture on several grounds: it took place in private; it was a form of punishment before conviction of guilt; and as a test of truth it failed and often led to conviction of the innocent.
Eighteenth-century people came gradually to see the pain of judicial torture as unnecessary suffering.
Defenders of judicial torture and traditional punishments immediately saw the danger in Beccaria's approach.
I can't help but imagine that the depiction of Christ as a victim of judicial torture
must have been a source of very real tension for a medieval English audience.
Dutch officials in the Cape busied themselves with everything from prescribing the details of judicial torture
to decreeing when and where a slave might enjoy a pipe (not in the sum of Cape Town with its low hanging thatched roofs).
Here, Ruff builds on the insights that the definition of violence "is a moving target" (5) and that violence "erupted as part of the discourse of human relations" (117) by exploring brawling, dueling, policing, domestic violence, judicial torture
, state punishment and rape.
And you can imagine the piteous pleas of the Confederation of Rack and Thumbscrew Manufacturers when judicial torture
The roots of judicial torture
were in the use of ordeal as a means of ascertaining truth; see Wegert, pp.