The World Health Organization recommends interpregnancy intervals
of 2 years or more after live births and 6 months or more after miscarriage, but currently has no specific recommendations on the optimal interpregnancy interval
after a stillbirth, according to Dr.
Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with interpregnancy interval
:cross sectional study.
Further, in pregnancy-based cohorts, we hypothesized that not accounting for the interpregnancy interval
in parous women would also result in an association between PFAAs and longer TTP, even if a causal association does not exist.
Use of family planning methods also decreases short interpregnancy intervals
, which in some studies have been shown to increase the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes .
TABLE 1 Risk factors for preterm delivery Modifiable Potentially modifiable Non-modifiable Low BMI/obesity Short or prolonged Black race interpregnancy interval
Smoking Maternal stress/ Genetics depression (Higher order) multiple Prior preterm birth gestations Education and Short cervix socioeconomic status Infection/inflammation First or second trimester vaginal bleeding Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.
The relationship of interpregnancy interval
to infant birthweight, and length of gestation among low-risk women, Georgia.
The birth weight of children was associated with age, educational status, socioeconomic status, and interpregnancy interval
of the mothers (p < 0.05).
and risk of autistic disorder.
(2010) Maternal and paternal age birth order and interpregnancy interval
evaluation for cleft lip-palate.
The interpregnancy interval
is also important, because there's pressure to have large families.
Effect of interpregnancy interval
on birth outcomes: findings from three recent US studies.
(27) Interpregnancy interval
was calculated by subtracting the date of the first teenage birth from the date of the second, and then subtracting the second infant's gestational age, as estimated on the birth certificate.
TABLE 1 Maternal risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth Risk factor Odds ratio Bacterial vaginosis at <16 weeks 7 Periodontal infection 4 Prior preterm birth 4 Prepregnancy BMI <20 3 Interpregnancy interval
<6 mo 2 Bleeding in 2nd trimester 2 African-American race 2 Psychiatric disorder 1.6 Cigarette smoking 1.5 Gestational diabetes 1.2 Sources: Iams 2002 (7); Leitich et al 2003 (8); Jeffcoat et al 2001 (9); Moutquin 2003 (10); Smith et al 2003 (11); Kelly et al 2002 (12); Hedderson et al 2003.
Although the evidence is of no more than moderate quality, women should be advised to have an interpregnancy interval
of at least 6 months and offered counseling about family planning before delivery.
The interpregnancy interval
was calculated as the amount of time between the birth of one child and the conception of the next one.