(b) Left lateral three-dimensional rotational spinal angiography (3D-RSA) from right T9 intercostal artery
showing spinal cord AVM.
Collateral angiography can be performed at the diaphragmatic artery, intercostal artery
, adrenal artery, or the thoracic artery, besides the routine celiac artery and superior mesenteric arteries, if necessary, and super-selective embolization can be achieved., Chemotherapeutics targeting different phases of the cell cycle are recommended, and combined use of chemotherapeutics is preferred.
The arterial supply to the breast is derived from branches of the internal mammary artery, lateral thoracic artery, intercostal artery
and pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial axis (see Figure 6).
In IPS, the systemic blood supply can be from the descending aorta (72%), abdominal aorta and splenic artery (21%), intercostal artery
(3.7%) or rarely the subclavian, internal mammary and pericardiophrenic arteries.7
CT chest (Figure 2) and subsequent intercostal arteriogram of T6-T12 intercostal arteries showed active contrast extravasations from the right T7 intercostal artery
(Figure 3), right T8 intercostal artery
, and small branch arising from right T10 intercostal artery
Urgent right lateral thoracotomy was performed revealing a bleeding posterior intercostal artery
(ICA) in the lateral chest wall at the level of the 8th intercostal space.
In most cases (96.38%) it gave rise to one right bronchial artery and one posterior intercostal artery
; in two cases (2.40%) it is divided into one left bronchial artery and one posterior intercostal artery
; in one case (1.20%) it originated from one left bronchial artery, one right bronchial artery, and posterior intercostal artery
; and in one case (1.20%) it branched into one right bronchial artery, two left bronchial arteries, and posterior intercostal artery
Along its caudal course, the coracoid major artery and the intercostal artery
branched off from the thoracic artery.