36) Congress added the takings exception to deal with expropriations, which are inherently governmental, yet it did not make the distinction between commercial and noncommercial actors in defining "agency or instrumentality.
is owned or operated by an agency or instrumentality of the foreign state and that agency or instrumentality is engaged in a commercial activity in the United States.
Our belief that the intrinsic value of a task is at least in part dependent on perceptions of instrumentality
stems from two sources.
Investigators who uncover any trade secret theft or misappropriation potentially concerning an agent or instrumentality
of a foreign government must immediately notify the FBI, due to the possibility that economic espionage may be involved.
A governmental plan is defined in Section 414(d) generally to mean "a plan established and maintained for its employees by the government of the United States, by the government of any state, or political subdivision thereof, or by any agency or instrumentality
of any of the foregoing.
When arguing in favor of Hudson Valley being consider a federal instrumentality
, CUNA cited case where the State of North Dakota had tried to impose a sales tax on a federally chartered land bank, an approach which CUNA suggested could render almost everything federally chartered banks or credit unions do subject to state taxes.
3306(c)(7), taxes under FUTA do not apply to compensation for services in the employ of a state, any political subdivision thereof or any instrumentality
of any one or more of the foregoing owned by one or more states or political subdivisions.
Farmer Mac is a stockholder owned federally charted instrumentality
of the United States that is organized and exists under Title VIII of the Farm Credit Act of 1971.
Licenses, permits or other rights issued or renewed by a governmental unit, agency or instrumentality
(even for an indefinite period or subject to renewal).
MEFA, a public corporation and governmental instrumentality
, is organized under the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
HESAA is a public body corporate and politic, which is in, but not of, the Department of State of the State of New Jersey and an instrumentality
of the State.
Kawamura, which challenged the constitutionality of the California Milk Advisory Board, an instrumentality
of the California Department of Food & Agriculture.
Arkansas Student Loan Authority (ASLA), a body politic and corporate and an instrumentality
of the state of Arkansas, was established in 1977 under Act 873 of the Acts of Arkansas.
Before that, he served as Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Farmer Mac (NYSE: AGM), a federally chartered instrumentality
of the United States that serves as the nation's secondary market for agricultural and rural housing mortgage loans.
Furthermore, the corporation, which was established under New York State's Not-for-Profit Corporation Law as an instrumentality
of New York City, meets Fitch's requirements as a special purpose entity and is considered bankruptcy remote.