Jones and Pittman (1982) argue that individuals usually engage in ingratiatory
behaviors to be seen as helpful, kind, and considerate.
This article focuses on subordinate kissing up or ingratiatory
1997 "Dimensionality of the measurement of ingratiatory
behaviors in organizational settings." Educational and Psychological Measurement, 57: 314-328.
The paper reports the development of a multidimensional, factorially independent scale to measure ingratiatory
behaviour in work organizations.
(1995) found that male salespeople are more likely to use certain ingratiatory
influence behaviors than females.
Chapter six presents four scales that have been used to assess individual differences in impression management styles: the self-monitoring scale, the balanced inventory of desirable responding (BIDR), the self-presentation scale and the measure of ingratiatory
behaviours in organizational settings (MIBOS).
"The Influence of Individual Differences on Reactions to Co-workers' Ingratiatory
Behaviors." Journal of Managerial Issues 11: 234-248.
In some respects, the desktop manager is a practical outgrowth of its cousins, the ingratiatory
or impression manager and the charlatan.
Items in the ingratiation scale were adapted from Kumar and Beyerlein's (1991) "Measure of Ingratiatory
Behaviors in Organizational Settings," which yielded high reliability and convergent validity for a diverse sample of employees from different industries.
Aryee, Wyatt and Stone (1996) found that proteges' ingratiatory
behavior with mentors was positively and significantly associated with career coaching.
More recently, Cooper (2005) suggested that humor can be a type of ingratiatory
behavior that can induce a favorable mood.
Others argue that ingratiatory
behaviors fare employed to increase perceived similarity between the source and the target through such tactics as opinion conformity, for example (Byrne & Griffit, 1966).
"The Influence of Individual Differences on Reactions to Coworkers' Ingratiatory
Behaviors." Journal of Managerial Issues 11 (2): 234-248.
Researchers have operationalized ingratiation in a variety of ways including favor doing, flattery, opinion conformity, or subservient behavior (Ferris and Judge, 1991; Kacmar et al., 1992; Liden and Mitchell, 1988; Wayne and Liden, 1995), and have attempted to determine the consequences of such behaviors for the target of ingratiatory
behaviors (e.g., the supervisor) as well as the actor.
The answers to these questions are important as it would suggest whether subordinate ingratiatory
behaviors should be encouraged, discouraged or ignored in organizations.