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Words related to infrahuman

belonging to a group below humans in evolutionary development

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1983) has suggested that many human and infrahuman subjects require an extended number of sessions before scalloping emerges in their response patterns during Fl reinforcement.
Other subjects who apparently "believed" that reinforcement was contingent on the number of actual responses performed, rather than on the amount of time elapsing, did not manifest patterns of responding reminiscent of infrahumans in laboratory conditions.
Skinner once noted that if he had a choice of studying a single infrahuman organism for 1,000 hours versus 1,000 organisms for one hour each, he would choose to study the single organism more intensely because he felt that, in the end, he would know more about behavioral variations with this option.
9) The legislatures and courts do not decide what rules infrahuman species must follow.
Numerical competence of infrahuman animals has been an exciting topic in comparative psychology (Boysen & Capaldi, 1993; Davis & Memmott, 1982; Davis & Perusse, 1988).
Several reviews of the literature have shown that the matching law has been extensively supported in experiments with infrahuman subjects in a wide variety of experimental situations (Baum, 1979, 1983, de Villiers, 1977; Horne & Lowe, 1993; Wearden & Burgess, 1982; for contrary interpretations, see Myers & Myers, 1977).
Acknowledging the differences between infrahuman and human learning initially served as an embarrassment for learning theory rather than as a challenge to explore these implications systematically.
The diversity of results obtained in past studies of stimulus equivalence can be summarized as follows: (1) Most evidence seems to suggest at this point that bidirectional emergent relationships are a distinct property of human (or verbal) behavior, and are not a property of infrahuman behavior; (2) Reinforcement is needed for initial training of discriminative relationships, but reinforcement only expedites the emergence of equivalence relations (i.