Three chapters take up the innovations that from the 1640s onward led to the new infinitesimal calculus
of Newton and Leibniz.
During this time, Leibniz was completely under the spell of the concept of indivisibles, and had no clear idea of the real nature of infinitesimal calculus
Baron's The Origins of the Infinitesimal Calculus
(New York: Dover Publications, 1969).
Leibniz earned a doctorate at 20, developed infinitesimal calculus
at 29, and in his 60 years managed to write around 200,000 pages.
In partial agreement with Brunschvicg's and Ishiguro's commentaries on the paradoxical status of Leibniz's infinitesimals, this study proposes a synthesis of both interpretations, which is based on the algorithmic nature of infinitesimals and on the assumption of continuity, and which renders possible the application of the Infinitesimal Calculus
Rosenzweig begins with the nothing, the incommensurable, which must unfold (there is much of this new language in Iser) itself from inside itself to the traveling differential, the Leibnizian infinitesimal calculus
that supposedly dissects God's immeasurability into an ever-emerging series of finite scissions, allowing translation of God's essence into self-[Rosenzweig's] performing realizations resulting in a continual self-specification of the world and an equally continuous flow of shifting configurations of the human self.
Although Berkeley maintained an interest in mathematics throughout his life, his only lasting contribution to the subject lay in his attack on the methods and assumptions of the infinitesimal calculus
, published in 1734-5 in The Analyst and A Defence of Free-Thinking in Mathematics.