All breaks were identified using indirect ophthalmoscopy
and indentation, and sealed using cryocoagulation.
Age related disease study 1 and 2 (AREDS 1 and AREDS 2) and other studies before OCT era were very important in terms of sorting out drusen based on their morphological characteristics on fundus photography or indirect ophthalmoscopy
and recognizing the ones that are more prone to progress to advanced stages of ARMD (atrophy or wet form).
Patients with RRD were collected, after complete history and ocular examination including visual acuity, slit lamp examination, pupil examination, intraocular pressure and fundus examination with both direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy
who performed complete ophthalmological examinations, including visual acuity, anterior biomicroscopy, tonometry, and indirect ophthalmoscopy
Detailed Ophthalmic examination of all the patients including slit lamp examination, 90D examination and indirect ophthalmoscopy
were carried out.
This technique is well tolerated in awake patients most likely since the light intensity used is often well below that which is used in standard indirect ophthalmoscopy
," Mukai said.
Direct ophthalmoscopy without dilatation was performed in all cases; patients with decreased vision or with intra-ocular complications were dilated and had indirect ophthalmoscopy
Direct fundoscopy, fundus photography, slit-lamp and indirect ophthalmoscopy
all play a role as individual modalities, and in combination, in the examination for diabetic eye disease.
Virtual reality indirect ophthalmoscopes are available with pre-programmed virtual images of various retinal conditions to train registrars in the technique of indirect ophthalmoscopy
, to recognise the pathology and to make retinal sketches.
At each visit routine evaluations, which included Snellen's best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurement by applanation tonometry, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy
, were done.
This involved two components: (i) a clinical interview to record demographics, HIV status, CD4 count results, use of ART and CMV treatments, ocular symptoms, and a brief systemic symptom screen probing shortness of breath, diarrhoea, fever, headache, change in personality and decreased concentration; and (ii) visual acuity measurements using a Snellen chart or gross visual tests for vision worse than 6/120, and an ophthalmological examination including indirect ophthalmoscopy
with fully dilated pupils to categorise CMV-R zonal location and to assess the presence of CMV-R complications, namely vitreous haemorrhage, cataract, endophthalmitis and uveitis.
Biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy
were performed to examine the retina.
They were submitted to slit-lamp biomicroscopy (Portable Slit Lamp/SL-14, Kowa), indirect ophthalmoscopy
(Heine - Omega 180, Heine), applanation tonometry (TonoPen XL, Mentor O & O), and fluorescein test (Fluorescein Strips, Ophthalmos Ltda).
It has been recommended that indirect ophthalmoscopy
or fluorescein angioscopy be used to detect these lesions and monitor their progression.
Screening by direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy
alone detected 65% of patients with sight-threatening retinopathy.