For example, hydrated oxides
of antimony and tin are used in sensors for hydrogen detection as a layer of a proton-conductive electrolyte.
Avalon's Hydrometallurgical Plant will produce four (4) saleable products in hydrated oxide
form - a total rare earth oxide, a zirconium oxide, a niobium oxide and a tantalum oxide.
Rare earth, or lanthanide, elements are characterized by: large atomic radii; a diversity of allowable electronic configurations; formation of multiple oxidation states, typically +3 and +4 with occasional +2 valence state; (1) reactivity with water to form neutral oxides; formation of stable, insoluble oxides of mixed valence states (19); complex coordination chemistry (20,21); instability of lower valence salts in alkaline conditions with a tendency to hydrolyze and precipitate as the hydrated oxide (22); and an extremely low reduction potential.
Metal oxides and/or hydrated oxides, as reaction products of metal with oxygen and/or water, are mostly inert and insulating to additional effects of water, oxygen, and electric current.
Individual fractions are given in diagrams: (a) fraction I--exchanged, (b) fraction II--carbonate, (c) fraction III--connected with hydrated oxides
of manganese and iron, (d) fraction IV--organic, e) fraction V--the residual
A mixed light and heavy rare earth precipitate as hydrated oxides
Bauxite has a widely varying composition, but it is an ore of aluminum containing four major constituents and these are hydrated oxides
of aluminum, (gibbsite, boehmite and diaspore), hydrated oxides
of iron such as goethite, silica and silicate minerals such as quartz and kaolin and moisture (as distinct from water of hydration contained in the minerals).
Acid-base surface properties of granulated spherical hydrated sorbents on the base of zirconium and aluminum hydrated oxides