For example, hydrated oxides
of antimony and tin are used in sensors for hydrogen detection as a layer of a proton-conductive electrolyte.
Avalon's Hydrometallurgical Plant will produce four (4) saleable products in hydrated oxide
form - a total rare earth oxide, a zirconium oxide, a niobium oxide and a tantalum oxide.
Rare earth, or lanthanide, elements are characterized by: large atomic radii; a diversity of allowable electronic configurations; formation of multiple oxidation states, typically +3 and +4 with occasional +2 valence state; (1) reactivity with water to form neutral oxides; formation of stable, insoluble oxides of mixed valence states (19); complex coordination chemistry (20,21); instability of lower valence salts in alkaline conditions with a tendency to hydrolyze and precipitate as the hydrated oxide (22); and an extremely low reduction potential.
Metal oxides and/or hydrated oxides, as reaction products of metal with oxygen and/or water, are mostly inert and insulating to additional effects of water, oxygen, and electric current.
Individual fractions are given in diagrams: (a) fraction I--exchanged, (b) fraction II--carbonate, (c) fraction III--connected with hydrated oxides
of manganese and iron, (d) fraction IV--organic, e) fraction V--the residual
- A mixed light and heavy rare earth precipitate as hydrated oxides
Acid-base surface properties of granulated spherical hydrated sorbents on the base of zirconium and aluminum hydrated oxides
. Issues of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 6, 102-104.