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Similar, homologous chromosomes pair whereas dissimilar, nonhomologous chromosomes do not.
Although many types of aberrations are found, the more commonly observed are deletion (loss of a small segment of a chromosome usually in only one homologue) leading to loss of information, translocation (a segment of one of the two homologous chromosomes breaks and binds to the other), duplication (occurrence of the same sectors twice on the same chromosome), inversion (a particular sector is reversed in the chromosome), insertion (a new sector is inserted into the chromosome) and substitution (a certain chromosome sector is replaced with another).
The noise appears to be related either (1) to inconsistency in the quality of repetitive sequence-enriched DNA required for assay specificity or (2) to copy-number polymorphisms that are found in homologous chromosomes from the same and from different individuals.
Complete TFPI deficiency in mice is lethal in the embryo stage of development, whereas heterozygosity (having two genes at corresponding alleles on homologous chromosomes different for one or more alleles) is compatible with normal survival.
8S, and 28S ribosomal RNAs (Ritossa and Spiegelman, 1965; Howell, 1982), they have been useful for identifying homologous chromosomes within and among cyprinid complements.
The presence of one to several univalent chromosomes or fragments at metaphase I or telophase II and anaphase II suggested the lack of full homology in the pairing of homologous chromosomes.
Chromosome colocalization events are common in cells, and one such event is meiosis: for sexual reproduction to succeed in producing viable cells all of the homologous chromosomes in the process have to, almost simultaneously, bind together in pairs.
The karyotypes of diploids and triploids have the same formula, and the relative length of homologous chromosomes from diploid and triploid M.
Acknowledgement of this fact then leads into a review of homologous chromosomes.
Identification of homologous chromosomes was carried out by a karyo-ideogram performed according to Spotorno (1985).