Of the 49 species of holothuroids
reported for the Central American Caribbean Sea (Alvarado, Solis-Marin, & Ahearn, 2008) at least 21 occur along the coast of Belize (Pawson, 1976; Hendler & Pawson, 2000; Rogers, 2013), of which H.
Although several species are free-living, those belonging to the genera Carapus, Encheliophis, and Onuxodon are able to enter and live inside different invertebrates, especially echinoderms such as holothuroids
Support for this hypothesis is lacking, as apart from the taxonomic catalogues published in the 1970's and before (see above) the holothuroids
of the Israeli and Jordanian shores of the gulf of Aqaba have never been examined in an ecological context.
All postmetamorphic echinoderms (except a few holothuroids
) have skeletal elements in their body wall (Fig.
(sea cucumbers) (Amemiya et al., 2005).
These include as holothuroids
, echinoids (Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck 1816), Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus 1758)), molluscs (sometimes bivalves cemented to each other), and crustaceans (Callinectes spp.), whose collection would be difficult or impossible using a smaller core.
Recently, the pan-neural synaptotagmin B monoclonal antibody generated from the sea star radial nerve cord has been used to great effect in studies of the LNS of echinoids, holothuroids
, and asteroids (Nakajima et al., 2004a, b; Burke et al., 2006; Nakano et al., 2006; Bishop and Burke.
Feeding larvae of asteroids and holothuroids
lack larval arms but still exhibit bilateral symmetry in lobes and folds of the ectoderm as well as in the arrangement of the ciliated band.
Predator deterrence of early developmental stages of temperate lecithotrophic asteroids and holothuroids
Numerous gregarines indeed parasitize holothuroids
and spatangoid echinoids, with 22 known species, including D.
Moreover, RN1 also labels previously described nervous structures within the enteric nervous system, which is one of the best-described nervous systems in the holothuroids
(Garcia-Arraras et al., 1999, 2001).
Recent phylogenetic evidence for echinoderm classes most strongly supports asteroids + ophiuroids as a sister group to echinoids + holothuroids
(Smith et al., 1993; Littlewood et al., 1997; Janies, 2001).
In echinoderms, intragonadal incubation of embryos is known for one crinoid, four ophiuroids, four holothuroids
, and five asteroids (Table 1).
Many adult echinoderms, including asteroids, ophiuroids, and holothuroids
, are known to possess considerable regenerative capacities as well as the ability to reproduce by clonal division (Emson and Wilkie, 1980; Mladenov and Burke, 1994).
To evaluate the relationship between egg size and energy content in echinoderms, we analyzed data obtained from the literature on 47 species, including 22 asteroids, 1 crinoid, 20 echinoids, and 4 holothuroids
. Of these, 9 species brood their young, 16 have pelagic nonfeeding development, 21 have planktotrophic larvae, and 1 has larvae that are facultatively planktotrophic.