Reproduction in sea cucumbers or holothuroids
(Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) was demonstrated to require inter-individual chemical exchanges (Hamel & Mercier, 1996) and minimum densities of individuals to work efficiently (Anderson, Flemming, Watson, & Lotze, 2011).
Yamanouchi (1955) found that holothuroid
saponins kill marine and freshwater fishes, and also earthworms.
Concurrently, information about holothuroid
community structure in many areas of the Indian Ocean and Africa, both associated with fisheries and not, is emerging (e.g., [18-21]).
The mean [V0.sub.2] values ([mu]l[O.sub.2]/g/h) in the standard state of echinoid catch apparatus (CA), holothuroid
body-wall dermis (HD), and asteroid body-wall dermis (AD) were 2.91, 1.41, and 0.56, respectively.
Recently, the pan-neural synaptotagmin B monoclonal antibody generated from the sea star radial nerve cord has been used to great effect in studies of the LNS of echinoids, holothuroids
, and asteroids (Nakajima et al., 2004a, b; Burke et al., 2006; Nakano et al., 2006; Bishop and Burke.
Numerous gregarines indeed parasitize holothuroids
and spatangoid echinoids, with 22 known species, including D.
Use of other neuronal markers (5, 8, 11, 18) may reveal greater complexity of the holothuroid
larval nervous system and apical organ.
In echinoderms, intragonadal incubation of embryos is known for one crinoid, four ophiuroids, four holothuroids
, and five asteroids (Table 1).
In addition, there are reports of aggregations of two echinoderm species in the North Atlantic (17, 18) that may have been for the purpose of reproduction, and pair formation has been documented in a holothuroid
Thus, mycosporine-taurine may be produced by the anemones themselves, perhaps by modifying other MAAs, as seems to be the case for certain MAAs and their precursors in corals (Shick et al ., 1999), holothuroid
echinoderms (Dunlap and Shick, 1998), fishes (Mason et al., 1998), and red macroalgae (Franklin et al., 1999).
purpuratus, and Dendraster excentricus, and the holothuroid
Parastichopus californicus were measured by Strathmann and Vedder (1977), but were not reported directly.
Tritiated thymidine (150 [micro]Ci of a 1 mCiIml aqueous solution of 5' -3HT; Amersham) was mixed with 1 ml of filtered seawater and injected, through the holothuroid
integument, into the coelomic cavity.
Altoff et al., "Observations of reproductive strategies for some dendrochirotid holothuroids
(Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida)," Memoirs of Museum Victoria, vol.
A new method to induce oocyte maturation in holothuroids
from the Bellingshausen Sea, with descriptions of new species (Echinodermata: Holothuroi dea).