The distinct stages of an individual, i.e., larva, pupa and adult of the holometabolous
organisms usually inhabit solitary galls, while for the hemimetabolous, distinct generations may cohabit a colonial gall.
Resource allocation and compensation during development in holometabolous
Escaping compound eye ancestry: the evolution of single-chamber eyes in holometabolous
Mosquitoes (Culicidae) development, as characteristic of all holometabolous
insects, proceeds through embryonic, larval, pupal, and adult stages that reflect considerable morphological and physiological differences .
Casas, "Lifetime allocation of juvenile and adult nutritional resources to egg production in a holometabolous
insect," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.
Evolutionary contrasts in insects: nutritional advantages of holometabolous
| Insects have two main life stage patterns, holometabolous
: egg, larva, pupae, adult; and hemimetabolous: egg, nymph, adult.
Leishmania parasites (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) reversibly inhibit visceral muscle contractions in hemimetabolous and holometabolous
insects with complete metamorphosis, AMPs are produced by the fat bodies  whereas the hemocytes act as the vital synthesizer for AMP in heterometabolous insects with incomplete metamorphosis .
Jindra, "Common and distinct roles of juvenile hormone signaling genes in metamorphosis of holometabolous
and hemimetabolous insects," PLoS ONE, vol.
From a developmental perspective, Chironomidae as well as many other aquatic insects are holometabolous
, resulting in four distinct life stages: egg, larvae, pupa, and adult.
They are laterally flattened, holometabolous
, and wingless ectoparasites.
This process, where the insect goes through four life stages is called holometabolous
The target pest includes both holometabolous
and hemimetabolous insects (Jahan et al., 1990; Khan et al., 1991; Jamal and Qamar, 2002; Ghoneim et al., 2007; Naqvi et al., 2007).