The scientists demonstrated that the integrator neurons do not posses a uniform dynamics and that the neurons are distributed in the hindbrain
with the help of their integrator time constants.
The criteria were a singleton pregnancy, myelomeningocele with the upper boundary between T-1 and S-1, evidence of hindbrain
herniation, gestational age between 19.
Genetic disruption of CYP26B1 severely affects development of neural crest derived head structures, but does not compromise hindbrain
FGFR1 is independently required in both developing midand hindbrain
for sustained response to isthmic signals.
Early neonatal MRIs showed that 71 percent of the infants had no evidence of hindbrain
herniation, in which part of the cerebellum (hindbrain
) protrudes through the opening in the base of the skull into the spinal canal and obstructs the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, leading to a progressive hydrocephalus.
Several other structural and developmental abnormalities are usually present in association with the Chiari II malformation, but the hindbrain
hernia is the most clinically important manifestation.
Afterward, we extracted the brains, removed the cerebellum and hindbrain
, and cut the remaining forebrain sagittally in half.
Patients with autosomal-recessive osteopetrosis presenting with hydrocephalus and hindbrain
posterior fossa crowding.
Keywords: Arnold-Chiari malformation, Chiari malformation, hindbrain
herniation, quality of life, syringomyelia, syrinx
Studies of early development in fishes show that neural networks in the brain controlling the more complex vocal and pectoral mechanisms of social signalling among birds and mammals have their ancestral origins in a single compartment of the hindbrain
6-8) Related disorders such as Dekaban-Arima syndrome, COACH syndrome and Senior-Loken syndrome may also demonstrate the molar tooth sign, and they often share the clinical syndrome related to hindbrain
malformation with Joubert patients.
Hox paralog group 2 (PG2) genes function to pattern structures derived from the hindbrain
and pharyngeal arches (PAs) in the developing heads of animal embryos.
The brain can be divided in three main sections: the hindbrain
, also known as the crocodile brain; the midbrain; and the neocortex.
Insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1) also plays an essential role in neuronal phenotype in vertebrate hindbrain
(Jacob et al.
All isoforms of AMPK are expressed in neuronal tissues, including these involved in the control of food intake and neuroendocrine function, such as the hypothalamus and the hindbrain
(Turnley et al.