glucoprivation effects on gastric vagal reflex circuits and gastric motility in the rat are suppressed by the astrocyte inhibitor fluorocitrate.
Larvae [greater than or equal to] 6 mm also have pigment in the mid- and hindbrain
In fact, the lateral paraventricular nucleus (PVN) connects to areas in the hindbrain
responsible for the sympathetic activity via neurons that secrete CRH (11-13).
Hypothalamic oxytocin neurons project likewise to the hindbrain
In this review we will describe the dynamic processes of neuronal migration and discuss current understanding of the underlying mechanisms by using mainly inhibitory cortical interneurons and neurons in the hindbrain
The brain can be divided in three main sections: the hindbrain
, also known as the crocodile brain; the midbrain; and the neocortex.
Restoration of normal hox code and branquial arch morphogenesis after extensive deletion of hindbrain
Insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1) also plays an essential role in neuronal phenotype in vertebrate hindbrain
(Jacob et al.
It is characterized by congenital malformation of the hindbrain
and a broad spectrum of other phenotypic findings which are now known to be caused by defects in the structure and/or function of the primary cilium.
Increasing evidence also promotes the effects that result in several stress-activated endbrain and hindbrain
NUCB2/Nesfatin-1 circuits (8,16,17).
The molecular genetic theory postulates that Chiari malformations result from primary defects in the genetic programming of hindbrain
segmentation and of growth of associated bone and cranial structures.
It is released from several tissues including forebrain, hindbrain
, brainstem, spinal cord, adipose tissues .
These regions receive input from the prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus, usually through connections using the neurotransmitter glutamate, and project to structures in the midbrain, hindbrain
, and hypothalamus.
All the brain structure including forebrain (FB) midbrain (MB) midbrain hindbrain
boundary (MHB) and hindbrain
(HB) developed normally in control embryos (Fig.
6-8) Related disorders such as Dekaban-Arima syndrome, COACH syndrome and Senior-Loken syndrome may also demonstrate the molar tooth sign, and they often share the clinical syndrome related to hindbrain
malformation with Joubert patients.