in tropical scleractinian corals," Biological Reviews, vol.
These results might be attributed to resuspended organic matter from the bottom blocking light radiation to aquatic autotrophs (Roland and Esteves, 1998; Williamson et al., 1999) and supporting pelagic respiration, an imbalance that could explain net heterotrophy
in nutrient-enriched waters (Cole et al., 2000).
Methodological tests of a heterotrophy
index for aquatic ecosystems.
Promising new lines of investigation addressing the mechanism by which coral calcification is depressed by high pC[O.sub.2] focus on at least four possibilities: the regulation of protons ([H.sup.+]) at the site of calcification (Jokiel, 2011), most likely with active transporters (Tambutte et al., 2011); perturbations in the activity of enzymes that modulate host-Symbiodinium interactions (Crawley et al., 2010); the role of nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, sulfur, and iron) in mediating changes in the quantity of biomass (i.e., heterotrophy
[Edmunds, 2011]) and the rate of calcification (Holcomb et al., 2010); and the capacity of aerobic respiration to supply metabolic energy at high pC[O.sub.2] (Erez et al., 2011; Edmunds, 2012; Wall and Edmunds, 2013).
Because juvenile nutrition is a balance between phototrophy and heterotrophy
(Mingoa-Licuanan & Gomez 2007), in such a scenario, nutrition limitation occurs and clam growth will be affected adversely.
Thus the fungus was a degenerate, a shameful criminal organism that turned to heterotrophy
and forfeited its self-sufficiency within the solar economy.
On the other hand, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a potential factor for the removal of oxygen from superficial waters, because of the utilization of the organic matter for the production of energy and the multiplication of aerobic heterotrophy
bacteria and mainly depends on the oxygen demand for the microbial activity as a result of the readily available carbon compounds for oxidation.
High frequency metabolism study in a large and shallow temperate lake revealed seasonal switching between net autotrophy and net heterotrophy
. Hydrobiologia, 694, 57-74.
In that study, it was found that observed nitrification rates were somewhat lower than predicted maximum zero-order rates, perhaps due to either prediction or competition with heterotrophy
A team, led by Dr David Wacey of the University of Western Australia and Bergen University, Norway, and Professor Martin Brasier of Oxford University, reports how this type of feeding on organic matter - called 'heterotrophy
' - was taking place.
A team, led by Dr David Wacey of the University of Western Australia and Bergen University, Norway, and Professor Martin Brasier of Oxford University, reports in this week's Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the fossil evidence for how this type of feeding on organic matter -- called 'heterotrophy
' -- was taking place.
of exogenous nutrients by microalgae is now being regarded as the practical means to increase the volumetric productivity of algal biomass .
High-frequency metabolism study in a large and shallow temperate lake reveals seasonal switching between net autotrophy and net heterotrophy
. Hydrobiologia, 694, 57-74.
Thus, students can explore questions related to fundamental concepts in cell biology such as autotrophy and heterotrophy
, nitrogen, vitamin or mineral nutrition, and physical environmental conditions.