This increased capability--which went hand in hand with the revival of Roman law allowed it to better establish normative pacification (9) as well as its supremacy versus foreign enemies and internal heterodoxies
. Theologically, the consolidation and implementation of catholic orthodoxy meant the increasing persecution of Christian heterodoxies
(39.) Ahmet Yashar Ocak, "Un apercu general sur l'heterodoxie
musulmane en Turquie: reflexions sur les origines et les caracteristiques du Kizilbachisme (Alevisme) dans la perspective de l'histoire," in Syncretistic Religious Communities in the Near East, ed.
In his latest book, Science or Pseudoscience: Magnetic Healing, Psychic Phenomena, and Other Heterodoxies
(2001), Bauer writes: "Comparisons between anomalistics and science as it is actually practiced will show that no sharp division can be established" (anomalistics being a politically correct term for the study of bizarre claims).
The growth of heterodoxies
and alternative models of achieving salvation (both within and beyond the orders of the Church) are analysed in terms of the different articulation of millennial alternatives.
Thus Alison Winter's chapter on the construction of orthodoxies and heterodoxies
in early Victorian life science sweeps away older understandings based on sociologically-informed marginalization theory by delving into the ways in which William Carpenter negotiated a reputation for himself through the careful manipulation of his audience and texts.
Arianism is but a "construction," a "fantasy" devised by "polemicists to counter the threat of heterodoxies
that were notoriously on the rise in the early church" (265).
Burnett argues that "Partly through their participation in popular culture and their access to developing cultural networks, subordinated groups could be empowered and even contest existing hierarchical arrangements" (8), while Jordan skeptically declares, "The suggestive heterodoxies
common to many playtexts have left no clear record of their translation into forms of social practice" (9).
The "others" he focuses on are women, nonprivileged economic classes, and heterodoxies
One might venture to explain this by observing that the thought of Protestant countries favours Origen's heterodoxies
even less than his orthodoxies: it is by abandoning some of his catholic premisses that it spares itself the difficulties which prompted his most original speculations.