As reticulocyte counts are indirect estimate of the bone marrow haematopoietic/erythropoietic output, it is fairly reasonable to suppose that the chronic exposures of these automobile workers to these petrochemical reagents may have adversely impacted haematopoiesis
. Exposure to these aromatic compounds and heavy metals may suppress the bone marrow's activity leading to ineffective hematopoiesis  and consequently reduced reticulocyte count.
Yue et al., "Bone marrow adipocytes promote the regeneration of stem cells and haematopoiesis
by secreting SCF," Nature Cell Biology, vol.
The oral administration of extracts derived from [beta]-glucans of the medicinal mushroom Grifola frondosa (Maitake) has been shown to stimulate haematopoiesis
and immune cells recovery post-paclitaxel treatment in animal models .
Furthermore, the postoperative inflammatory response from major burn surgery affects haemostasis and results in ineffective haematopoiesis
, all of which have an impact on Hb changes.
In ineffective haematopoiesis
, the BM activity ranges from normal to increased, but cells die before or shortly after release into the circulation.
It is suggested recently that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in bone marrow, another kind of stem cells, provide structural and functional support for haematopoiesis
. MSCs colocalize with HSCs in the bone marrow, forming multipotent and self-renewing mesenspheres, which are required for HSCs maintenance, homing, and migration .
Dale, "Mutations in ELA2, encoding neutrophil elastase, define a 21-day biological clock in cyclic haematopoiesis
," Nature Genetics, vol.
Papadimitriou, "Spinal cord compression due to extramedullary haematopoiesis
in two patients with thalassaemia: complete regression with blood transfusion therapy," Journal of Neurology, vol.
van Doorn, "Spinal cord compression due to extramedullary haematopoiesis
in thalassaemia: a case report and review of the literature," Journal of Neurology, vol.
Bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed trilineage haematopoiesis
with increased plasma cells.
PTH not only exerts anabolic action by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation but also upregulates haematopoiesis
by improving bone marrow microenvironment .
In the foetal stage, the yolk sac and foetal liver haematopoiesis
are the embryonic precursors for macrophages [6, 7].
Biomechanical forces promote embryonic haematopoiesis
. Nature 459:1131-1135.
Extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis
was seen in the liver, and fetal vessels contained moderately increased nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs), without intranuclear inclusions typical for parvovirus infection.
Crustacean haemocytes and haematopoiesis
. Aquaculture, 191: 45-52.