Similarly, the proportion of female graduates, doctorates and habilitations also grew.
The following table shows a significant increase in the number of female doctorates, habilitations and professors between 1980-1999 (Fig.6).
Women were allowed habilitation in Prussia in 1920 and the first woman obtained a Chair in 1923.
Only one-third of the new doctor's degree awardees and 15,3 % of the new habilitation awardees are women.
What universities and equivalent institutions have in common is the right to award a doctorate and a postdoctoral lecturing qualification (habilitation).
The following higher academic qualifications, and usually the necessary steps of an academic career, are the doctoral and post-doctoral (habilitation) qualifications.
Habilitation is a post-doctoral qualification and is awarded by the universities and equivalent institutions, usually on the basis of a post-doctoral thesis and a public lecture followed by discussion.