Electrophysiological studies of gustation
in lepidopteran larvae.
Doty (Ed.), Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation
The human body is commonly said to have five major exteroreceptors: (1) eyes for seeing, (2) ears for hearing (audition) plus balance or motion, (3) nose for smelling (olfaction), (4) tongue for tasting (gustation
), and (5) cutaneous exteroreceptors in the skin for the sense of touch or taction (also for pain, pressure, and heat).
This study area seems to have great importance and promise because chronemics seems to link all other areas of nonverbal communication studies as interrelated, dynamic processes, i.e.: proxemics; kinesics; paralinguistics; haptics; oculesics; olfaction; gustation
Laing, Perception of Odor Mixtures, In Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation
, Doty, R.
As previous research on fish gustation
has suggested, these attractants have reportedly proved palatable for other species.
Smith provides a model of how to proceed by mining "studies by social and cultural historians on the history of the senses to critically reexamine the great divide theory and standard claims about the emerging hegemony of the eye," for example, subchapters "Sounds 'Modern'," "Smells Modern: Scent at the Great Divide," "Others, Smells and Selves in the Modern World," "Gustation
and Modernity," and "Haptic Modernity" (p.
These regions are known to be associated with gustation
People activate regions of their brains involved in gustation
(e.g., the anterior insula) when they observe other people's facial expressions of gustatory emotion (Jabbi, Swart, & Keysers, 2007).
The 13 papers in this collection describe such fish olfaction topics as the development and evolution of the olfactory organ in Gnathostome fish, responses to amino acids in rainbow trout, olfactory discrimination, recordings of stimulated goldfish, cross-adaptation, alarm reactions, solitary chemosensory cells, the Barbel taste system in catfish and goatfish, taste bud cells and their behavior, the role of gustation
in comparisons of species based on volumetric brain data, and taste tests for the nine-spined stickleback from the Moscow River and White Sea basins.
Clark (1997) noted the importance of chemical senses in birds, but also the infrequency in which these senses (that is, olfaction, gustation
, and chemesthesis) are investigated relative to species ecology (for example, management-related applications).
The dorsum of the tongue of mammals presented a specialized mucous membrane with lingual papillae related to specific function of gustation
. The anatomy, histology and ultrastructural details of these structures change according to the analyzed species as observed by Iwasaki & Miyata (1989); Kobayashi et al.
Table 1 Summary of the structures and suggested functions for seta type 1, 2, 3 of Palaemon adspersus Type of seta Length in [micro]m Pore * Neurons/cilia Type 1 Serrate 250-300 - 4-9 Type 2 Serrulate 200-250 + 18-25 Type 3 Serrulate 150-200 - 4-9 Scolopale * Modality Primary function Type 1 + Bimodal Protection Type 2 + Bimodal Gustation
Type 3 + Bimodal Grooming * Plus indicates presence; - indicates absence.