The degree of etiolation accorded with the [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 3 OMITTED] species' relative shade tolerance, gray birch being the most plastic (INTACT etiolation 50-67 fold greater than in the CLEAR plots), followed by red maple (9-10 fold increase) and sugar maple (threefold increase).
Negative effects on gray birch were virtually complete (i.
While gray birch survival was consistently low under competition, survival of the maples was facilitated in the 1988 but not in the 1989 cohort.
After the iron companies abandoned the hills, gray birch
was the initiator species that first reforested the land, giving early shade to other saplings that wriggled up from the burned-over scrub and brush.