As no standardized terms for describing turnout have been presented in the dance medicine and science literature, the terms used herein are defined as follows: "rotational goniometer
turnout (RGMT)" refers to turnout performed on the RGM; "class turnout (CT)" indicates the turnout performed during regular ballet classes; and "active turnout (AT)" describes the active external rotation of the lower extremities in supine position with the knee and hip joints straightened.
(1) They include radiographic evaluation, use of a universal plastic goniometer
, electrogoniometry, and measurement of joints using physical landmarks in photographs.
. Two observers measured all subjects' ROM three times independently with an UG.
Secondarily we wanted to determine if the intra-examiner reliability of this new device was of a similar magnitude to that of a standard goniometer
A new mechanical goniometer
with six-degree freedom, for dynamic assessment of lower limb joint angles, has been designed and developed and reported here.
Inherent tolerance in the XRD goniometer
production and assembly is inevitable, therefore fictitious shear and normal stresses are always present.
pairs a light detector with a motorized system for rotating a source around its center point in two axes, allowing light output to be measured as a function of angle (the spatial power distribution).
The evaluations on the flexion and extension range of motion of the lumbar spine were made using a simple goniometer
after instructing the volunteer regarding positioning and the correct way of doing the test.
, due to low cost, portability and reliability, was used for measurement of joints range of motions (ROM) and considered as a standard method for ROM determination.
Various measurement devices are available for cervical ROM evaluation,7,10 going from simple instruments like universal goniometer
(UG) to electromagnetic 3D Fastrak measurement system or 3D ultrasound equipment.7,11-13 But these equipment are not very accessible for clinical practice due to high cost and complexity for use in specific segments.
Then the angle was measured, using a goniometer
and the angle was noted down.
The angles of declination and inclination were measured with goniometer
. Other parameters were measured with digital Vernier calipers.
It is the dimensions of the optical components shown, and those of the goniometer
itself that determine the resolution of the diffractometer.
Direct methods measure the flexibility of static Indirect methods measure the flexibility of static Procedure sit and brush with a traditional box Procedure sit and brush with modified box Goniometric test method (goniometer
* clarification of the allowed / recommended goniometer
base (cap) model(s)