Of the significant values, the Pakistani mean for the measurement of articular angle, gonial angle and upper gonial angle were slightly larger compared to the Caucasian population.
The Pakistani population has been shown to exhibit significantly greater articular angle, gonial angle and upper gonial angle compared to the Caucasians which is entirely opposite to the results of the Saudi population34 where these three variables are significantly lower than the norms of the Caucasians.
The mean value for gonial angle on right and left side of the mandible on OPG was 124.
OPG can be used as an alternative to lateral cephalogram in determining gonial angle which shows its versatility as a diagnostic tool.
Key Words: orthopantomogram, gonial angle, lateral cephalogram, mandible, vertical pattern.
8 One of the most important cephalometric parameter giving an indication about the vertical growth pattern and symmetry of facial skeleton is gonial angle.
Correlation of the gonial angle
with condylar measurements on dry mandible: a morphometric study for clinical-surgical and physiotherapeutic practices.
The means showed that the right gonial angle was more open (right 126.
Some reported no statistically significant difference in gonial angle measurements between sides22,23 but the results of this study showed that more than 25% of the population studied had either moderate or severe asymmetry when comparing left and right gonial angles.
A short ramus steep mandibular plane and increased lower facial height and an increased gonial angle also contribute to the hyperdivergent skeletal pattern.
The craniomaxillary angle (SN-PP) and gonial angle were closer to the mean Caucasian sample values.
The value of the Gonial angle was statistically similar in both groups.
The morphology of the mandible changed as a consequence of age and between genders, which can be expressed as a widening of the gonial angle, increasing of the bigonial width and shortening of the ramus.
Key words: Gonial angle, ramus height, bigonial width, digital panoramic radiography, mandible.
3 To evaluate the morphology of the mandible, previous studies have used measurements such as gonial angle, ramus height and bigonial width.