There are two opposing explanations accounting for the high expression of GLUT-1 that illustrate its role in hypoxic and oncogenic pathways (or both combined due to secondary changes to the microenvironment): (1) glucose is used in excess via glycolytic pathways
leading to intracellular depletion of glucose and the subsequent recruitment of facilitative transport enables a sustained high metabolic rate, and (2) the increased expression of GLUT-1 allows accelerated glycolysis by increasing intracellular glucose concentrations beyond normal physiological limits.
Many studies, including research programs supported by pharmaceutical companies, have focused on the development of inhibitors targeting glycolytic pathways
Salicinium is a glycome (sugar) conjugated (attached) to benzaldehyde which is toxic to the glycolytic pathway
upon entry into any fermenting cell.
Swanson et al., "Evidence for an alternative glycolytic pathway
in rapidly proliferating cells," Science, vol.
Authors concluded that oxidative phosphorylation, despite contributing to ATP production, is not sufficient to sustain sperm motility, confirming that the glycolytic pathway
is the primary energy source for human sperm.
Methylglyoxal (MG), an endogenous toxic compound from the glycolytic pathway
, may accumulate and impair cognitive dysfunction in metabolic diseases.
Glucose, fructose, and galactose can enter the glycolytic pathway
through phosphorylation of various forms so as to perform glycolysis or aerobic oxidation so as to provide ATP which the body needs.
As a fluorescent deoxyglucose analogue, 2-NBDG is transported into cells and enters the glycolytic pathway
in HepG2 cells (Wang et al., 2011), and vascular muscle cells (Ye et al., 2008)..
Blood lactate concentrations increase with a greater reliance on glycogenolysis and the glycolytic pathway
for energy metabolism, especially when performing physical exercise at very high intensities and with little or no recovery periods.
Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that metabolic pathways after DHCA with ASCP were mainly involved in the activated glycolytic pathway
, subdued anaerobic metabolism, and oxidative stress.
The activities of the glycolytic pathway
(EMP), TCA, and pentose phosphate pathways (PPP) were inhibited by addition of NaF (0.5 M), malonic acid (0.5 M), and Na3PO4 (0.5 M), respectively.
The current study found that blood lactate production increased as a result of resistance exercise regardless of exercise sequence, and that lactate concentration may represent a similar glycolytic pathway
in both conditions.
Regarding energy gain, the shorter and more energetically economical way, probably selected by evolution, includes gluconeogenesis until phosphoenolpyruvate (step D-3 in Figure 1), degraded by the glycolytic pathway
Furan derivatives like furfural in the range of 1 to 2 g/l, have reported to inhibit the aldolase enzymes in glycolytic pathway
and affect the rate of growth of yeast cells (15).
Effects of ischemia on known substrates and cofactors of the glycolytic pathway
in the brain.