XBP1, X-box binding protein 1; Hsp72, heat shock 70 kDa protein 1; qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; ANOVA, analysis of variance; HSD, honestly significant difference; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate dehydrogenase; RT-PCR, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; usXBP1, un-spliced XBP1; sXBP1, spliced XBP1.
A-E) Five 6-10-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were infected subcutaneously with 104 FFU of Toro-2003 (blue) or HB171/11 (red), and viral burden in CNS tissue (olfactory bulb [A], cerebrum [B], cerebellum [C], brain stem [D], and spinal cord [E]) was measured by quantitative PCR and normalized to intracellular glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate dehydrogenase levels.
ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate dehydrogenase; qRT-PCR: quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; TNF-[alpha]: tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
Molecular modeling studies involving compounds with biological activity against the enzyme glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate dehydrogenase from T.
Real-time PCR primers of investigated genes Gene Primer sequence IL-6 forward: 5'- GAT GAG TAC AAA AGT CCT GAT CCA - 3'; reverse: 5'- CTG CAG CCA CTG GTT CTG T - 3' TGF-[beta]1 forward: 5'-GTC CAC AGC CAT TGA CCT TT-3' reverse: 5'-ACC GCT CAC TTC CAG AGA GA-3' IL-17 forward: 5' -CGA TCC ACC TCA CCT TGG A-3' reverse: 5'-TCC CAG ATC ACA GAG GGA TAT CTC TC-3' FoxP3 forward: 5' -CAG CAC ATT CCC AGA GTT CCTC-3' reverse: 5' -GCG TGT GAA CCA GTG GTA GATC- 3' GAPDH forward: 5'-ATT CCA CCC ATG GCA AAT TC-3' reverse, 5'-GCA TCG CCC CAC TTG ATT-3' IL-6: interleukin-6; TGF-[beta]1: transforming growth factor beta 1; IL-17: interleukin-17; FoxP3: forkhead box protein 3; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde
phosphate dehydrogenase; PCR: polymerase chain reaction Table 3.
C5a peptidase, equisimilis glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hyaluronidase Species Origin References S.
(ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test.) BZYQD: Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction; PI: propidium iodide; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate dehydrogenase; z-VAD-fmk: z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone.
The list of primers for specific genes and housekeeping gene glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) are indicated in Table 2.
Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase is an essential glycolytic enzyme found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate to glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (3).
3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was amplified as a control for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Most of the enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways such as plastidic aldolases (ALD, spot 12, 2.69-fold, and spot 36, 1.5-fold), fructose bisphosphatase aldolase class I (FBA, spot 36, 1.5-fold), glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, spot 6, 1.8 fold, spot 23, 3.1 fold, and spot 37,1.6 fold), Ribose-5-phosphate,3-epimerase (spot 41, 1.7 fold), triose-phosphateisomerase (spot 42, 1.6 fold and spot 44, 1.9-fold), and carbonic anhydrase (CA, spot 17, 3.1 fold, spot 27, 3.22 fold, and spot 40, 1.64-fold) were increased in relative abundance in 100 [micro]M As treatment except for transketolase (TK; spot 1) and RuBisCO activase (spot 22).
Some of the major moonlighting functions of glycolytic enzymes are transcriptional regulation (hexokinase-2, lactate dehydrogenase-A, and enolase 1), apoptosis (hexokinase and glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate dehydrogenase), and cell motility (glucose 6-phosphate isomerase) (reviewed by Kim and Dang 2005) .
To a stirred solution of glyceraldehyde
5 (13 g, 100 mmol) in dry ether (150 mL) was added anhydrous magnesium sulfate (20 g).
BM-MSC in 3rd passage were treated with osteogenic medium consisting of DMEM medium (Gibco-Invitrogen) containing 10% FBS (Hyclone), 1 mM dexamethasone, 10 mg/mL glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate, and 0.1 mM ascorbic acid (osteogenesis kit, Chemicon).
Monoclonal rabbit antibodies for AQP2-3 (Chemicon, Temecula, CA; 1:2000, 1:1000, and 1:1000, respectively), eNOS and nNOS (Santa Cruz, CA; 1:1000 and 1:1000, respectively), and glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (Sigma, St.