seriolae showed a preference by the second gill arch
. Sharp et al.
Mandible, ceratobranchial, cleithrum and gill arches
were the initial skeletal structures appeared at 3 DPH that supported the vital life functions such as feeding and respiration.
pethericii ([[chi].sup.2]=0.22; P>0.05) on outer and inner hemibranches irrespective of the gill arch
acrodine cap, hypermineralized hard tissue on top of teeth (by 0rvig 1978); basal part, the lower, usually also wider part of a gill raker core; base, the lowest attachment structure, often with a spur-like projection; crown, the top of a tooth or of a gill-raker tubercle; cutting edge (by Cooper & Chapleau 1998), tooth row forming a sharp edge for biting; gill arch
, the skeletal support of the gill which bears the gill filaments and the gill rakers; gill raker, bony or cartilaginous projection extending from a gill arch
and covered with soft tissue (epithelium); gill raker core, bony mineralized substance of a gill raker; gill raker row, the gill rakers arranged in one or two rows on a gill arch
(outer and inner row of Frame et al.
Similarly, it has been observed that the direct application of Nog regulates the BMPs in chondrogenesis, deducing that the activity of these proteins is increased when the antagonists decrease, and this increase reduces the expression of FGF-8 leading to improper migration of neural crest cells of the first gill arch
, causing stunt growth of the bones of the upper and lower jaws.
- Gill opening broad, extending forward to vertical at posterior edge of orbit; gill membranes attached only anteriorly to isthmus, with no free fold; gill rakers slender, longest about equal in length to longest gill filaments of first gill arch
3), and the association is assumed to represent one individual for the following reasons: 1) all skeletal elements belong to the same taxon; 2) all gill rakers are within a size range found on a single gill arch
(Hovestadt and Hovestadt-Euler, 2011, p.
"In this case, shared developmental mechanisms pattern the skeletons of vertebrate gill arches
and paired fins," he added.
The count of scales in longitudinal series is made from above the upper end of the gill opening to the base of the caudal fin; scales in transverse series are counted from the origin of the anal fin obliquely upward to the base of the first dorsal fin; the count of gill rakers is made on the first gill arch
, those on the upper limb given first.
Sections of gill tissue (5-10 filaments and the attached gill arch
) were placed in formalin for subsequent histologic examination.
The anterior trabeculae are formed from neural crest tissue, and they make up a portion of the visceral skeleton anterior to the mandibular gill arch
. (2) In the primitive jawed vertebrate, the remaining gill arches
(i.e., the mandibular, hyoid, and fourth and fifth true branchial arches) surround the pharynx in the ventral part of the head.
Blue spots distinct over entire body; pectoral-fin rays 17 or 18; no vomerine teeth; 34 or 35 gill rakers on first gill arch
; 50-54 pores in the lateral line series, uniserially arranged; vomerine teeth absent (Gulf of California) O.
In this study, the major intensity of infection occurred in the larger sizes (4-6 cm) with intensities of infection of 10-75 trichodinids on the skin and 10-20 trichodinids on gill arch
. Control replicas of gill treatments did not show significant differences in the intensity of infection, however, in the values obtained from skin, significant differences in the intensity of control treatments were presented.
. The gill arch
has a cresentic-shape and oblique rostroventrally, carrying gill rakers on its concave border and gill filaments on its convex border (Figs.