Relapsing fever, more accurately known as either tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) or louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF), is an arthropod-borne infection caused by several species of spirochetes in the genus Borrelia
. TBRF is usually zoonotic and is endemic on most continents, each with its own species of Borrelia (for example, Bo.
Borreliosis is caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia
. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is the main cause of Lyme disease in North America.
Editorial Note: TBRF is caused by infection with any of several species of the genus Borrelia
Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed by using primers and probes specific for the genus Borrelia
. All samples positive for Borrelia spp.
At the 12th International Conference on Lyme Disease and Other Spirochetal and Tick-Borne Disorders (April 1999), Burgdorfer explained that microbiologists have studied genus Borrelia
spirochetes for over 100 years.
To the Editor: Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by infection with spirochetes belonging to the genus Borrelia
. We previously reported a human case of febrile illness suspected to be TBRF on the basis of serologic examination results; the vector most likely was a genus Carios tick that had fed on a seabird colony (1).
To the Editor: Tick-borne relapsing fevers caused by members of the genus Borrelia
have been encountered throughout Africa, Asia, the Americas and, rarely, in southern Europe (1).
To the Editor: Tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is a zoonosis caused by spirochetes in the genus Borrelia
that are transmitted by argasid ticks of the genus Ornithodoros (1).
Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia
are known to cause 2 major types of human disease, Lyme disease, which occurs primarily in temperate regions, and relapsing fever (RF), which occurs in both temperate and tropical regions.
Among tickborne bacteria, extracellular spirochetes of the genus Borrelia
are widely spread and most studied.
The two major clades of species in the genus Borrelia
are the Lyme borreliosis group and the relapsing fever group (1).
Pathogenic spirochetes in the genus Borrelia are transmitted primarily by two families of ticks.
The genus Borrelia currently contains 37 species of spirochetes, many of which cause diseases in humans and domestic animals (Table) (3).
Species of the genus Borrelia
cause human and animal infections, including Lyme disease, relapsing fever, and epizootic bovine abortion.