Unlike the other forms, inhalational and gastrointestinal anthrax
, it is not a life-threatening disease.
anthracis spores aerosolized at the drumming event, which did not result in inhalation anthrax but did result in gastrointestinal anthrax
is diagnosed by staining and culture of fecal samples, vomitus, or hemorrhagic fluid from body cavities.
is rare, but may occur as explosive outbreaks associated with ingestion of infected animals.
As in inhalation disease, multidrug parenteral treatment is recommended initially for oropharyngeal and gastrointestinal anthrax
and for cutaneous anthrax with extensive edema or involving the head and neck.
can lead to vomiting, loss of appetite, nausea, and diarrhea; without antibiotics, the death rate is 25 to 60 percent.
Anthrax in humans can be divided into 4 clinical forms--Cutaneous, Inhalational, Oro-pharyngeal and Gastrointestinal anthrax
based on the mode of acquisition of infection.
is characterized by severe abdominal pain followed by fever and signs of septicemia.
Depending on the route of pathogen entry, three distinct clinical forms of infection are described: cutaneous (skin), inhalation, and gastrointestinal anthrax
In contrast to acquiring the disease through typical routes of infection, leading to cutaneous, inhalation, or gastrointestinal anthrax
, these patients became infected by injecting heroin (1-3).
No cases of gastrointestinal anthrax
have been reported in the United States.
These classifications are Inhalation anthrax, Cutaneous anthrax via injured skin or mucous membranes, and Gastrointestinal anthrax
Cutaneous anthrax, the most common manifestation of disease, accounts for 95% of cases, whereas pulmonary and gastrointestinal anthrax
are much less common and follow inhalation or ingestion of spores, respectively.