The Mantel tests revealed a high correlation between site similarity for galling
species and for host plant families ([R.sup.2]= 0.654; P=0.008) and a very high correlation for galling
species and for host plant species ([R.sup.2]=0.969; P<0.001), as expected.
High gall frequencies on long shoots has been reported for other galling
insects on woody plant species (Price et al., 1987).
This suggests that 119R confers to progeny a high level of resistance for galling
So, the 1988 data, taken in September comprise the second and third generations of galling
by the midge.
Besides the galling
species, two free-living larvae were found, one on flowers of Asteraceae (not determined species), and the other, Clinodiplosisfloricola Novo-Guedes and Maia, 2008 on bud flowers of Heteropteris nitida Juss (Malpighiaceae).
(Apocynaceae) with their galling
herbivores started with Campos et al.
The growth of Aphis fabae as an indicator of the nutritional advantage of galling
to the apple aphid Dysaphis devecta.
In 1991, galling
treatments were successfully established using field experiment methods: plants were caged to exclude gall wasps, or left uncaged and given two previous-year galls whose gall wasps freely oviposited on the plants.
After this, we estimated gall morphotype richness and abundance, percentage of leaves attacked by galling
insects, number of galls per leaf and per individual.
Relationships between four neotropical species of galling
insects and shoot vigor.
Comparison of tropical and temperate galling
species richness: the roles of environmental harshness and plant nutrient status.
Gall-midges of the family Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) are the most diverse group of galling
insects (Gagne 1994, 2004, Carneiro et al.
prasina is also attacked by a diversity of free-feeding herbivores (Braga et al., 2007) and an unidentified species of galling
nematode (Santos J.C., personal communication).
Intraspecific interactions were documented in the galling
aphid Pemphigus betae, which forms galls on poplar (Whitham 1978).
Among these insects, there are four types of galling
insects (Hymenoptera) found on the C.