Soliven et al., "Zoonotic simian foamy virus
in Bangladesh reflects diverse patterns of transmission and co-infection," Emerging Microbes & Infections, vol.
Taken all together, the cell cycle dependences of foamy virus
infection have demonstrated that vectors based on these viral genomes are not sufficient for specific targeting of nondividing cells.
Improved diagnostic assays have not documented evidence of foamy virus
infection in large populations (approximately 8000 persons) (3-7).
Ape hunters in Africa have contracted simian foamy virus
, a study found, and Aventis Pasteur recalled its Imovax rabies vaccine because a live strain was found in one batch.
Other retroviruses known to infect primates include simian type D retrovirus, simian T-cell lymphotropic virus, and simian foamy virus
Simian foamy virus
, a nonpathogenic retrovirus found in nonhuman primates including macaques, has been transmitted during occupational exposure to macaques via bites and scratches in many of the aforementioned contexts and in agricultural, suburban, and urban environments (18-20).
Simian Foamy Virus
(SFV) has spread to people in the Cameroon who have been exposed to the body fluids of the animals through hunting or eating.
Finally, nonhuman primates are host to potentially zoonotic viruses, such as simian foamy virus
, which has unknown pathogenic potential in infected persons (8), and Macacine herpesvirus 1, which causes severe, often fatal, neurologic disease in humans exposed to macaques with asymptomatic infection (9).
In contrast, zoonotic transmission of simian foamy virus
, a retrovirus ubiquitous in nonhuman primates, has been shown to occur from macaques to humans, probably through monkey bites, although this virus has not been shown to cause disease in humans (5).
Despite the high prevalence of STLV-1, simian foamy virus
, and simian immunodeficiency virus infections among red colobus populations (8) and the fact that this nonhuman primate species is the one most frequently hunted by humans (4), most zoonotic transmissions of retroviruses in western Africa seem to originate from sooty mangabeys, as shown here for STLV-1 and previously described for simian immunodeficiency virus of sooty mangabeys, the precursor of HIV-2 (12).
In addition, contemporary simian foamy virus
infections from Angolan pied colobus and red- tailed guenons have been identified in persons living around an area where we collected samples from primate bushmeat, thus confirming ongoing cross-species transmission with simian retroviruses (35).
Widespread exposure to a broad range of NHP body fluids and tissues encountered during hunting, butchering, or keeping primates as pets has been implicated in the emergence of 3 different retrovirus genera: HIV, HTLV, and, more recently, simian foamy virus
Although reactivity of HMS 14 antiserum is weak, this serum was able to neutralize SFV but not the chimpanzee-derived primate foamy virus
, which confirmed infection (data not shown).
Seroprevalence of simian foamy virus
reached 88% among adult animals.
These are key sites for the emergence of nonhuman primate retroviruses because of the high levels of human contact with wild nonhuman primates (5) and cross-species transmission of simian foamy virus
(10) and primate T-lymphotropic viruses (11).