Finster and Kamran propose causal

fermion systems and Riemannian

fermion systems as a framework describing non-smooth geometries, in particular, providing a setting for spinors on singular spaces.

He published his research on the "Extended Dirac Equation for Elementary

Fermions based on Applying 8-Dimensional Spinors." DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.23994.90569

If one wishes to avoid exotic electric charges in the

fermion and boson sectors as the ones present in the minimal model, one must choose b = 1/2, in Eq.

But we do have the next best thing -- electrons working together in such a way that their collective behaviour produces something just like a Majorana

fermion.

STC defect Type of particle Particles Screw dislocation Massless boson Photon Edge dislocation Massive boson Spin-0 particle Spin-1 Proca eqn Spin-2 graviton Wedge disclination Massive

fermion Quarks [l.sup.3] Twist disclination Massive

fermion Leptons l Twist disclination Massless

fermion Neutrinos

The single-particle and collective excitations of the system under consideration manifest themselves as poles of the single-particle and two-particle Green's functions, but the corresponding expressions for the Green's functions cannot be evaluated exactly because the interaction part of the Hubbard Hamiltonian is quartic in the

fermion fields.

which is the Hamilton-Jacobi equation satisfied by a

fermion particle of mass m moving in the black hole with the electromagnetic potential [A.sub.[mu]].

where [F.sub.s] is the

fermion number operator and [[delta].sub.S] = [+ or -]1 is the space-time spin statistics index.

The monotonic decreasing behavior of the chemical potential with temperature for d/s [greater than or equal to] 1 is understood from the argument based on the fact that the internal energy U diminishes from its zero temperature value [E.sub.F] after adiabatically adding a

fermion at the small temperatures T [much less than] [T.sub.F].

The newly discovered particle, known as a Weyl

fermion, resembles a massless electron that darts around and through the material in unusual and exciting ways, physicists report online July 16 in Science.

Two new particles long thought to have existed -- the pentaquark and the Weyl

fermion, were experimentally confirmed in groundbreaking news out of MIT, Princeton, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

The researchers analyzed the data gathered at the LHC between 2011 and 2012, combining the Higgs decays into bottom quarks and tau leptons, both of which belong to the

fermion particle group and the results revealed that an accumulation of these decays comes about at a Higgs particle mass near 125 gigaelectron volts (GeV) and with a significance of 3.8 sigma.

The final body chapter explores applications and analogies in other areas of science, including finite

fermion systems, astrophysical nucleation, atmospheric aerosol condensation, and medical imaging and therapy.

The physical mass is deduced by locating the pole of the

fermion propagator (i([??] + m)/([p.sup.2] - [m.sup.2] + i[epsilon])) in thermal background.

At that time a known particle with zero mass was only the Photon, a Boson, with tsh spin but he reduced mass of a

fermion or an electron in Dirac's equation and got a pair of particles with zero mass and therefore with no electric charge because if a particle has no rest mass but spin half of tsh then we are forced to assign it, zero electric charge.