The critical goal is to show that these sophisticated reasons-based accounts of rationality are still unsatisfactory, at least when combined with a factualist conception of normative reasons.
Below I will say more about how factualist conceptions of reasons motivate this idea, but for the moment let us assume that it is on the right track.
The Senders are practitioners of that "one-way telepathic broadcast" which, according to the Factualists
, "must be regarded as an unqualified evil" (140); and as far as I can see, Sending in this sense--which "Artists will confuse ...
147-53 the Parties of Interzone: the Liquefactionists, the Senders, the Divisionists (all forms of fascism/control), the Factualists
Throughout Junky, Burroughs performs a "Factualist
" analysis of the behaviors, rituals, relationships, and social structures of junkies in the tone and style of an anthropologist reporting on the manners and mores of some exotic, outlandish tribe.
204), so long as they do not grow up "factualists
" lacking a sense of the mystery of life, or the novel's derisive satire of Easter service at Haddam's First Presbyterian Church, where Frank slips in for a few minutes only to find that "nothing here could matter less than my own identity" (p.
Burroughs had planned to write Queer using the same "factualist
" narrative technique he used to produce Junky.
In this paper, Stathis Psillos argues that scientific realism should be committed to the factualist
view of reality and not, in the first instance, to the fundamentalist.
He tells us that "what all non factualist
conceptions have in common", or what is "constitutive" of them, is, when such a sentence contains a predicate "P"
Oddie and Demetriou argue that, just as the nonfactualist faces the Frege-Geach problem--he cannot explain how, in a valid argument, truth transfers from the premises to the conclusion--so too does the noncognitivist factualist
face the problem that he cannot explain how rational acceptance and rejection transfers from the premises to the conclusion of an argument.
For example, the Senders, described in Naked Lunch as "the Human Virus" (141), are opposed by the Factualists
who intervene in the Senders' propagandist messages with facts, thus interrupting the messages by using information as noise (136).
The dependence on "authorities" constitutes precisely the limits of the "rigid historian." He cannot look to "the holiest kinds of truth--the truths of the greatest purpose, the purest integrity, the noblest ambition, the most godlike magnanimity." (15) The true historian puts "flesh" on the bones of history rather than attempting to animate an articulated skeleton by a form of "moral galvanism." But inevitably Simms's true historian will be met by the "decapitative" question from the factualists
: "Where are your authorities?" It is in the face of such questions that the artist's courage must come to the fore.
This world of independent states of affairs is tied together by causation--an all-embracing causal net which gives the world a unity other factualists
have had difficulty providing.