If not, would you please let me help with any further expurgations
?" (JFK Folder 516).
Borges, with his lovable generosity toward eccentricity, writes of the translations of Arabic tales that "an evasion of the original's erotic opportunities is not an unpardonable sin in the sight of the Lord, when the primary aim is to emphasize the atmosphere of magic"--only to approve, just a few pages later, of his favorite translator, Richard Burton, who resents earlier expurgations
of "the erotic" and is "rampantly capable of filling this gap." Direct censorship for any reason--usually part of the political and/or moral climate of the time as opposed to, say, a publisher's foibles--is part of what can be asked of the jobbing translator.
Such revisions upset, among others, the Directors Guild of America, which filed suit four years ago, arguing that the expurgations
violate copyright protections.
Senkman, Warner, Graff Zivin, Lopez-Quinones as well as Yasmine-Sigrid Vandorpe highlight the gaps, ironies, paradoxes, inconsistencies, and expurgations
in zur Linde's testimony.
Nevertheless, the expurgations
and additions in the book were simplistic and slight.
G enette devotes the bulk of his study on ways in which hypertextual transformations such as self expurgations
, excisions, reductions, or amplifications are created out of particular hypotexts.
There he discovered one of Lanier's predictable expurgations
. In the quotation above, in between "mother's brother" and "Leave this opinion," the Bishop continues, "and are ye not his son, therefore how may ye wed your father's wife?" (MD XXI.1) Elsewhere Lanier inserts a bracketed substitute for every word "father" referring to Arthur: "I know well that my [uncle] will be avenged upon me," says Mordred, and at the death-blow "right so he smote [the king] with his sword holden in both his hands" (BKA VI.30).
Yet another edition, this time by the infamous Thomas Bowdler, intentionally defanged Gibbon's work by actually going so far as to remove the religiously-offensive material, along with sections thought to be potentially licentious.(25) Among Bowdler's expurgations
were the entire contents of the offending chapters fifteen and sixteen -- omissions he felt no one would notice.(26) These Christianized editions repackaged Gibbon for new generations of Protestant readers not familiar with the heat of the controversy surrounding the initial publication of his work.